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Research & Position Documents
Note: The ‘Building Healthy Boness Throughout Life’ guidelines are the consequence of an 18 month organic structure of work and supply recommendations for calcium, vitamin D and exercising for all phases of life ( childhood, healthy grownups, older grownups, and people with osteoporosis and osteopenia ) . A drumhead version was besides published as a addendum in MJA OPEN ( 9 pages ) . Please chink here to entree 4 Feb 2013 podcast interviews by Dr Giovanna Zingarelli, Deputy Editor of the MJA, with Professor Peter Ebeling sing these guidelines. ( If you experience any troubles accessing this nexus with Internet Explorer you may hold to seek Firefox or Chrome )
The pure calcium carbonate occurs in two crystalline signifiers: calcite, hexangular shaped, which possesses birrefringent belongingss, and aragonite, rhombohedric. The natural carbonates are the most abundant calcium minerals. The Iceland spar and the calcite are basically pure carbonate signifiers, whilst the marble is impure and much more compact, ground why it can be polished. It’s really demanded as building stuff. Although the calcium carbonate is really small soluble in H2O, it is rather soluble if the H2O contains dissolved C dioxide, for in these solutions it forms hydrogen carbonate when dissolution. This fact explains the cave formation, where the calcium hydroxide rock sedimentations have been in contact with acerb Waterss.
Health effects of calcium
Calcium is the most abundand metal in the human organic structure: is the chief component of castanetss and theets and it has keys metabolic maps. Calcium is sometimes referred to as calcium hydroxide. It is most normally found in milk and milk merchandises, but besides in veggies, nuts and beans. It is an indispensable constituent for the saving of the human skeleton and dentition. It besides assists the maps of nervousnesss and musculuss. The usage of more than 2,5 gms of calcium per twenty-four hours without a medical necessity can take to the development of kidney rocks and induration of kidneys and blood vass. A deficiency of calcium is one of the chief causes of osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is a disease in which the castanetss become highly porous, are capable to break, and heal easy, happening particularly in adult females following climacteric and frequently prima to curvature of the spinal column from vertebral prostration.
Unlike most of the people think, there is an intense biological activity inside our castanetss. They are being renewed invariably by new tissue replacing the old 1. During childhood and adolescence, there’s more production of new tissue than devastation of the old one, but at some point, someplace around the 30 or 35 old ages of age, the procedure is inverted and we start to free more tissue than what we can replace. In adult females the procedure is accelerated after the climacteric ( he period marked by the natural and lasting surcease of menses, happening normally between the ages of 45 and 55 ) ; this is because their organic structures stop bring forthing the endocrine known as estrogen, one of which maps is to continue the osteal mass.
A Guide to Calcium-Rich Foods
Produce Serving SizeEstimated Calcium* Collard leafy vegetables, frozen8 oz360 milligram Broccoli rabe8 oz200 milligram Kale, frozen8 oz180 milligram Soy Beans, green, boiled8 oz175 milligram Bok Choy, cooked, boiled8 oz160 milligram Figs, dried2 figs65 milligram Broccoli, fresh, cooked8 oz60 milligram Oranges1 whole55 milligram SeafoodServing SizeEstimated Calcium* Sardines, canned with bones3 oz325 milligram Salmon, canned with bones3 oz180 milligram Shrimp, canned3 oz125 milligram DairyServing SizeEstimated Calcium* Ricotta, part-skim4 oz335 milligram Yogurt, field, low-fat6 oz310 milligram Milk, skim, low-fat, whole8 oz300 milligram Yogurt with fruit, low-fat6 oz260 milligram Mozzarella, part-skim1 oz210 milligram Cheddar1 oz205 mg Yogurt, Greek6 oz200 mg American Cheese1 oz195 mg Feta Cheese4 oz140 mg Cottage Cheese, 2 % 4 oz105 milligram Frozen yoghurt, vanilla8 oz105 milligram Ice Cream, vanilla8 oz85 milligram Parmesan1 tbsp55 milligram Fortified FoodServing SizeEstimated Calcium* Almond milk, rice milk or soy milk, fortified8 oz300 milligram Orange juice and other fruit juices, fortified8 oz300 milligram Tofu, prepared with calcium4 oz205 milligram Waffle, frozen, fortified2 pieces200 milligram Oatmeal, fortified1 packet140 milligram English gem, fortified1 muffin100 milligram Cereal, fortified 358 oz100-1,000 milligram OtherServing SizeEstimated Calcium* Mac & cheese, frozen1 package325 milligram Pizza, cheese, frozen1 serving115 milligram Pudding, cocoa, prepared with 2 % milk4 oz160 milligram Beans, baked, canned4 oz160 milligram *The calcium content listed for most nutrients is estimated and can change due to multiple factors. Check the nutrient label to find how much calcium is in a peculiar merchandise.
How much, and what sort, does an grownup demand?
If vitamin D degrees are optimum, most grownups should be able to run into their day-to-day calcium needs via a varied diet that includes a broad assortment of calcium-rich nutrients. When persons are unable to acquire adequate calcium through a diet of calcium-rich nutrients, or for those who may necessitate more than the recommended day-to-day allowance, addendums can assist. Dr. Weil recommends adult females addendum with 500 to 700 milligram of calcium citrate in two divided doses taken with repasts for a sum of 1,000-1,200 milligram a twenty-four hours from all beginnings ( including diet ) ; for work forces Dr. Weil recommends non utilizing calcium addendums at all ( except on the advice of a doctor ) , but alternatively acquiring 500-600 milligrams per twenty-four hours through diet. Dr. Weil suggests supplementing with calcium citrate, which is more easy absorbed than other signifiers, taken with half the dose sum of Mg.
How make you acquire plenty from nutrients?
An abundant beginning of this mineral in the American diet is dairy merchandises – two spectacless of milk per twenty-four hours provide 1,000-1,200 milligram. If you choose to acquire your calcium via dairy merchandises – and this is non indispensable, as there are many other calcium-rich nutrients – do certain you use merely hormone-free, organic dairy merchandises to cut down your exposure to the antibiotics and endocrines found in many dairy merchandises. Non-dairy nutrients rich in calcium include: leafy vegetables such as collards, mustard, boodle, and bok choy ; canned salmon ( with castanetss ) and pilchards ; bean curd that has been coagulated with a calcium compound ; calcium-fortified soy milk, fruit juice and cereals ; blackstrap molasses ; and broccoli.
Calcium Addendums and Fracture Prevention
A 62-year-old healthy adult female nowadayss for everyday attention. She has no history of break, but she is worried about osteoporosis because her female parent had a hip break at 72 old ages of age. She exercises on a regular basis and has taken nonprescription calcium carbonate at a dosage of 1000 milligram three times a twenty-four hours since her climacteric at 54 old ages of age. This regimen provides 1200 milligram of elemental calcium per twenty-four hours. She eats a healthy diet with multiple helpings of fruits and veggies and consumes one 8-oz helping of low-fat yoghurt and one glass of low-fat milk about every twenty-four hours. She late heard that calcium addendums could increase her hazard of cardiovascular disease and wants your sentiment about whether or non she should have them. What would you rede?
The Clinical Problem
Both clinicians and patients are likely to be confused by the inconsistent and sometimes at odds advice about the sum of calcium consumption required to cut down the hazard of break and, in peculiar, whether calcium addendums are necessary. Long-run calcium lack can clearly confabulate a sensitivity to osteoporosis,1 but many individuals erroneously believe that postmenopausal and age-related bone loss and the associated addition in susceptibleness to break can mostly be avoided with the usage of calcium supplementation. Although some individuals remain at hazard for calcium lack, other individuals, peculiarly those having calcium addendums, may have more than the recommended day-to-day consumption.
The complex and incompletely understood interaction between calcium and vitamin D consumption complicates our apprehension of the benefits and hazards associated with either one alone.2,3 For illustration, a recent randomised test showed that even high doses of vitamin D3 ( 4800 IU per twenty-four hours ) had modest good effects on calcium soaking up ( a 6 % addition ) among postmenopausal adult females with low serum degrees of 25-hydroxyvitamin D.4 Furthermore, a figure of clinical tests have studied the combination of calcium plus vitamin D in assorted doses, but fewer tests have examined the effects of calcium entirely on the skeleton.
Chiefly on the footing of surveies of calcium balance in individuals younger than 50 old ages of age and the known acceleration of bone loss that occurs with climacteric and advanced ripening, the Institute of Medicine ( IOM ) has issued guidelines sing the dietetic consumption of calcium harmonizing to sex and age5 ( Table 1Table 1Recommended Dietary Intake of Elemental Calcium for Healthy Persons. ) . The recommended calcium consumption and the calcium content of assorted nutrients and addendums are quantified in mgs of elemental calcium. Different supplement preparations provide different sums of elemental calcium. The recommended dietetic allowances are based on demands for healthy populations. The recommended upper consumption degrees are based chiefly on the hazard of renal lithiasis observed in surveies of calcium supplementation in postmenopausal adult females. Calcium soaking up is increased in pregnant and wet adult females, but the recommended calcium consumption for these adult females does non differ from that for other adult females in the same age group.
In a population-based survey affecting grownups in the United States, the dietetic consumption of elemental calcium varied harmonizing to age group but averaged 900 to 1200 milligram in work forces and 750 to 850 milligrams in adult females ; the lowest consumption was observed among work forces and adult females older than 70 old ages of age.6 More than 70 % of dietetic calcium comes from dairy products.5 To gauge a individual 's day-to-day dietetic calcium consumption, clinicians can presume that most adults consume about 300 milligrams of calcium per twenty-four hours from nondairy beginnings ( e.g. , assorted veggies and grains ) and so gauge the entire day-to-day consumption by ciphering the extra day-to-day consumption of dairy merchandises ( Table 2Table 2Well-Absorbed Dietary Sources of Calcium. ) . The usage of calcium addendums is common ; cross-sectional studies have shown that 43 % of U.S. grownups ( and about 70 % of postmenopausal adult females ) on a regular basis take calcium supplements.8 Despite frequent usage of calcium addendums, many grownups in the United States, peculiarly postmenopausal adult females, do non devour the recommended 1000 to 1200 milligram of elemental calcium per twenty-four hours, and few consume more than the recommended upper consumption degree of 2000 to 2500 milligrams per twenty-four hours.
Dietary Calcium versus Calcium Addendums
In general, calcium-rich nutrients and drinks, peculiarly dairy merchandises, are the preferable beginnings of calcium because they are widely available, and with the exclusion of lactose intolerance, they are associated with few inauspicious effects. Some grounds suggests that a greater proportion of ingested calcium is absorbed from certain dietetic beginnings such as Brassica oleracea italicas and boodle than from calcium supplements.5 Although informations affecting clinical results ( breaks ) are missing, physiological surveies suggest no stuff differences in the metabolic actions of dietetic calcium as compared with calcium obtained from supplements.9,10 Therefore, the determination about whether or non to have addendums depends on the adequateness of dietetic calcium consumption and the balance between the possible benefits and injuries of addendums. The safety and side-effect profile of calcium addendums are described below.
Calcium addendums are available over the counter ; labels normally include both the entire mg of calcium salt and the mgs of elemental calcium in each tablet. Determination of the dosage required to run into day-to-day calcium demands is based on the sum of elemental calcium. Normally used readyings include purified calcium carbonate, calcium citrate, and, to a lesser extent, calcium lactate and calcium gluconate ; readyings differ in the sum of elemental calcium provided ( Table 3Table 3Widely Available Calcium Supplements. ) . Calcium carbonate provides comparatively high elemental calcium content ( 40 % ) and is cheap and widely available. As compared with other calcium addendums, calcium carbonate is more likely to do irregularity and bloating11 and should be taken with repasts, since stomachic sourness is required for sufficient soaking up. As compared with calcium carbonate, calcium citrate provides less elemental calcium ( 21 % ) , but it is a sensible option in patients with annoying GI symptoms ; it may be taken with or without repasts, since soaking up is non dependent on stomachic sourness. If day-to-day supplementation with more than 500 milligram of elemental calcium is required, divided doses are recommended to better soaking up and minimise GI side effects.
Potential Benefits of Calcium Intake
Perimenopausal and age-related bone loss, and the accompanying increased hazard of break, occur when there is a net loss of calcium in the skeleton due to an instability between bone reabsorption and bone formation. Although perimenopausal bone loss is chiefly related to the loss of estrogen, age-related bone loss in both work forces and adult females is determined by familial, hormonal, and other factors. Experimental surveies suggest that bone loss and break hazard addition when calcium consumption is below 700 to 800 milligrams per day.1,12 Conversely, the consequence of extra calcium consumption on bone loss among individuals who do non hold a calcium lack is less clear and is likely modest.13
Many tests have assessed the antifracture benefits of calcium addendums, but most, such as the Women 's Health Initiative ( WHI ) Calcium/Vitamin D Supplementation test, included vitamin D as portion of the intercession and did non preferentially enroll individuals with low dietetic calcium intake.14 The WHI test did non demo a important decrease in hip breaks or other breaks in adult females indiscriminately assigned to 1000 milligram of elemental calcium plus 400 IU of vitamin D per twenty-four hours as compared with adult females assigned to placebo, possibly because the average calcium consumption in the placebo group was 1154 milligram per day.15 However, pooled analyses of the combination of calcium plus vitamin D have suggested a modest protective consequence on breaks, peculiarly among frail and aged persons.16,17 For illustration, a meta-analysis of 16 placebo-controlled tests of calcium and vitamin D addendums ( including the WHI test ) late performed for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force showed an overall 12 % decrease in the hazard of any fracture.16 In this analysis, the benefits of calcium and vitamin D with regard to break hazard were important among institutionalised individuals ( comparative hazard, 0.71 ; 95 % assurance interval, 0.57 to 0.89 ) but non among community-dwelling individuals ( comparative hazard, 0.89 ; 95 % CI, 0.76 to 1.04 ) ( P=0.07 for interaction ) . Fewer tests have specifically examined the skeletal effects of calcium addendums entirely, but a meta-analysis that pooled the consequences of 9 randomised tests of calcium addendums entirely ( affecting a sum of 6517 individuals ) showed that the overall decrease in breaks was 10 % .17 Conversely, a pooled analysis of 3 tests of calcium entirely showed an unexpected 50 % addition in the hazard of hip fracture.18 Thus, current grounds suggests that supplementation with calcium and vitamin D or with calcium entirely has a modest overall consequence on the hazard of break, and whether or non everyday usage of addendums is good for community-dwelling individuals remains unsure.
Potential Harms of Calcium Intake
Although calcium addendums have few side effects, minor irregularity and indigestion are common. The hazard of renal lithiasis is increased with the usage of calcium addendums ( the relation hazard was 1.17 in the WHI test ) ,19 and the hazard appears to be dose-dependent.20 Conversely, in experimental surveies, a higher dietetic consumption of calcium has been associated with a lower hazard of renal lithiasis, possibly because of a decrease in the enteric soaking up of oxylate.21 Early surveies suggested that the usage of calcium addendums might increase the hazard of prostatic malignant neoplastic disease among work forces, but a recent meta-analysis that included more than 4000 instances of prostate malignant neoplastic disease showed no association with the usage of calcium supplements.16
Several surveies have raised concerns about a possible addition in cardiovascular hazard associated with calcium supplementation. A meta-analysis of published consequences of 11 placebo-controlled tests of calcium addendums without vitamin D showed an increased hazard of myocardial infarction among individuals indiscriminately assigned to calcium ( odds ratio, 1.27 ; 95 % CI, 1.01 to 1.59 ) .22 The writers speculated that transeunt supplement-related additions in serum calcium levels18 might precipitate arrhythmias or possibly advance vascular calcification. This meta-analysis received considerable attending but was criticized because of inconsistent adjudication of events, fringy statistical significance, and exclusion of tests measuring calcium plus vitamin D. Among the tests non included in this meta-analysis was the WHI trial,14 which involved more than 36,000 adult females and showed no important addition in adjudicated cardiovascular events23 or overall mortality24 among adult females who received calcium plus vitamin D. In a subsequent meta-analysis, the same research workers included informations from tests of calcium plus vitamin D, including some of the WHI test data,25 but they still excluded WHI participants who were having calcium addendums at baseline ( about 54 % 14,23 ) ; the pooled drumhead estimation of the hazard of myocardial infarction associated with supplementation in this updated analysis yielded similar consequences ( odds ratio, 1.24 ; 95 % CI, 1.07 to 1.45 ) . The exclusion was based on the statement that a hazard associated with addendums might be obscured among these adult females if it was attributable to abrupt alterations in plasma calcium concentrations after the ingestion of addendums. This attack has been capable to unfavorable judgment and to considerable debate.26-30 A 2010 meta-analysis31 that included all participants in the WHI test showed no important relationship between supplementation and cardiovascular events in pooled analyses of 2 tests of calcium plus vitamin D ( comparative hazard, 1.04 ; 95 % CI, 0.92 to 1.18 ) or in 3 tests of calcium addendums entirely ( comparative hazard, 1.14 ; 95 % CI, 0.92 to 1.41 ) . In another placebo-controlled test of supplementation with calcium carbonate ( 1200 milligram of elemental calcium per twenty-four hours ) affecting 1460 older adult females ( average age, 75 old ages ) ,32 calcium supplementation did non ensue in an addition in the hazard of decease or atherosclerotic events necessitating hospitalization ( identified through a validated register ) over a follow-up period of 5 old ages.
Experimental surveies have besides yielded conflicting results.33-41 For illustration, whereas two big, prospective cohort surveies showed that the usage of calcium addendums was associated with an increased hazard of cardiovascular events or death,33,34 a big Canadian prospective cohort study35 and the drawn-out followup of the WHI trial36 showed no important association between the usage of calcium addendums and cardiovascular events. Several surveies have shown no relationship between higher dietetic consumption of calcium and inauspicious cardiovascular outcomes.33-35,37-39 In contrast, a recent survey affecting a Swedish cohort showed that, as compared with adult females with consumptions between 600 and 999 milligrams per twenty-four hours, rates of decease from cardiovascular causes and decease from any cause were higher among adult females with a dietary or entire calcium consumption of 1400 milligrams per twenty-four hours or more but there was no increased hazard with consumptions of 1000 to 1399 milligram per day.40 Neither the prospective Framingham Heart Study41 nor the WHI trial42 showed a relationship between the usage of calcium addendums and the coronary calcium mark.
Patients who can devour dairy merchandises without inauspicious effects should be encouraged to regularly devour them along with other nutrients that have a high calcium content ( Table 2 ) . Since calcium munition of processed nutrient and drinks is variable, labels must be checked carefully to find the calcium ( and caloric ) content per helping and the helping size. For individuals who are unable to run into recommended day-to-day calcium demands with dietetic consumption entirely, calcium supplementation should be discussed ; the side-effect profile ( Table 3 ) and cost should be considered in taking a supplement.11 Supplement dosing combined with dietetic consumption should be sufficient to come close but non transcend the IOM day-to-day guidelines.
In a 2013 update,45 the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force found deficient grounds to measure the benefits and injuries of day-to-day supplementation with more than 1000 milligram of calcium ( or more than 400 IU of vitamin D ) for the primary bar of breaks in noninstitutionalised postmenopausal adult females. However, the undertaking force cited the negative consequences of the WHI test and recommended against everyday day-to-day supplementation with 1000 milligram or less of calcium or 400 IU or less of vitamin D. They found deficient grounds to urge for or against the usage of calcium addendums in work forces and premenopausal adult females. Although the writers of the recommendation statement acknowledged the importance of equal calcium consumption for skeletal wellness, they did non address supplementation specifically in individuals with unequal dietetic consumption.
Decisions and Recommendations
The healthy postmenopausal adult female described in the sketch reports a current entire day-to-day consumption of 2240 milligram of elemental calcium: a dietetic consumption of about 1040 milligram ( about 300 milligrams from nondairy beginnings and 740 milligram from dairy merchandises ) and addendums that provide 1200 milligram of calcium. Since her calcium consumption is well greater than the IOM recommendation of 1200 milligrams per twenty-four hours for postmenopausal adult females, I would urge that she increase her dietetic calcium consumption by 200 milligrams per twenty-four hours and stop her calcium addendums. If increasing her dietetic consumption is non executable, she can cut down her calcium carbonate supplementation to one 500-mg tablet each twenty-four hours. She should be informed that addendum usage, but non increased dietetic consumption, modestly increases the hazard of renal lithiasis, and she should be advised about a potency increased hazard of cardiovascular events, although the grounds of the latter is presently inconsistent and inconclusive. If she continues to supplement her dietetic calcium consumption, she should be advised to take calcium carbonate with repasts to optimise soaking up.
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Calcium is an of import constituent of a healthy diet and a mineral necessary for life. The National Osteoporosis Foundation provinces, `` Calcium plays an of import function in edifice stronger, denser castanetss early in life and maintaining castanetss strong and healthy later in life. '' Approximately 99 per centum of the calcium in the human organic structure is in the castanetss and dentitions. Intracellular calcium overload can do oxidative emphasis and programmed cell death in some cells, sometimes taking to several diseases. In the electrical conductivity system of the bosom, calcium replaces Na as the mineral that depolarizes the cell, proliferating the action potency. In cardiac musculus, Na inflow commences an action potency, but during K outflow, the cardiac myocyte experiences calcium inflow, protracting the action potency and making a tableland stage of dynamic equilibrium. Long-run calcium lack can take to rachitiss and hapless blood curdling ; in menopausal adult females, lack can take to osteoporosis, a status in which the bone deteriorates and fractures more readily. While a womb-to-tomb shortage of calcium can impact bone and tooth formation, over-retention can do hypercalcaemia ( elevated degrees of calcium in the blood ) , impaired kidney map, and reduced soaking up of other minerals. Vitamin D is needed to absorb calcium.
The release of calcium ions from the sarcoplasmic Reticulum into the cytol is an indispensable intracellular signal, of import in many cellular maps and procedures, including musculus contraction, neural transmittal as in an excitatory synapse, cellular motility ( including the motion of scourge and cilia ) , fertilization, cell growing or proliferation, acquisition, memory ( as with synaptic malleability ) , and secernment of spit. Calcium signalling can be studied by lading a cell 's cytol with a calcium-sensitive fluorescent dye such as Fura-2. Many of these dyes were developed by Roger Y. Tsien.
Calcium addendums are used to forestall and to handle calcium lacks. The Office of Dietary Supplements ( National Institutes of Health ) recommends that no more than 600 milligram of addendum should be taken at a clip because the per centum of calcium absorbed decreases as the sum of calcium in the addendum increases. It is hence recommended to distribute doses throughout the twenty-four hours. Recommended day-to-day calcium consumption for grownups vary: the British NHS recommends 700mg per twenty-four hours whereas MedlinePlus in the USA recommends between 1000-1300mg depending on age. Calcium addendums may hold side effects such as bloating and irregularity in some people. It is suggested that taking the addendums with nutrient may help in invalidating these side effects.
Compared with other metals, the calcium ion and most calcium compounds have low toxicity. This is non surprising, given the really high natural copiousness of calcium compounds in the environment and in beings. As for unwritten ingestion safety, the Food and Nutrition Board of the U.S. Institute of Medicine sets Tolerable Upper Intake Levels ( known as ULs ) for vitamins and minerals when grounds is sufficient. In the instance of calcium the UL is set at 2500 mg/day for grownups ages 19 to 50 and 2000 mg/day for ages 51 and up. This is non toxicity per Se. From the FNB `` Excessively high degrees of calcium in the blood known as hypercalcaemia can do nephritic inadequacy, vascular and soft tissue calcification, hypercalcinuria ( high degrees of calcium in the piss ) and kidney rocks. '' The European Food Safety Authority reviewed the same safety inquiry and put its UL at 2500 mg/day.
Calcium can be extracted by electrolysis from a amalgamate salt like calcium chloride. Calcium is comparatively soft for a metal ; although harder than lead, it can be cut with a knife with trouble. Calcium is chemically reactive ; when exposed to the air, it quickly forms a grey-white coating of calcium oxide and calcium nitride. In bulk signifier ( typically as french friess or `` turnings '' ) , the metal is slightly hard to light, more hard even than magnesium french friess ; but, when lit, the metal Burnss in air with a superb high-intensity orangish-red visible radiation. Calcium metal reacts with H2O, bring forthing H gas at a moderate rate without bring forthing much heat, doing it utile for bring forthing H. In powdery signifier, nevertheless, the reaction with H2O is highly rapid, as the increased surface country of the pulverization accelerates the reaction. Part of the ground for the awkwardness of the calcium–water reaction is a partial passivation ( chemically protective surfacing ) of indissoluble white calcium hydrated oxide ; in acidic solutions, where this compound is more soluble, calcium reacts smartly.
Calcium has five stable isotopes ( 40Ca, 42Ca, 43Ca, 44Ca and 46Ca ) , plus one more ( 48Ca ) that has such a long half life, it can be considered stable for many intents. The 20 % scope in comparative mass among of course happening calcium isotopes is greater than for any component other than H and He. Calcium besides has a cosmologic isotope, radioactive 41Ca, which has a half life of 103,000 old ages. Unlike cosmologic isotopes produced in the ambiance, 41Ca is produced by neutron activation of 40Ca, chiefly in the top meter of the dirt column, where the cosmologic neutron flux is sufficiently strong. 41Ca has received much attending in leading surveies because it decays to 41K, a critical index of solar-system anomalousnesss.
Isotope fractional process
As with the isotopes of other elements, a assortment of procedures fractionate, or change the comparative copiousness of, calcium isotopes. The best studied of these procedures is the mass-dependent fractional process of calcium isotopes that accompanies the precipitation of calcium minerals, such as calcite, aragonite and apatite, from solution. Isotopically light calcium is preferentially incorporated into minerals, go forthing the solution from which the mineral precipitated enriched in isotopically heavy calcium. At room temperature the magnitude of this fractional process is approximately 0.25‰ ( 0.025 % ) per atomic mass unit ( AMU ) . Mass-dependent differences in calcium isotope composing conventionally are expressed by the ratio of two isotopes ( normally 44Ca/40Ca ) in a sample compared to the same ratio in a standard mention stuff. 44Ca/40Ca varies by about 1 % among common Earth stuffs.
Calcium isotope fractional process during mineral formation has led to several applications of calcium isotopes. In peculiar, the 1997 observation by Skulan and DePaolo that calcium minerals are isotopically lighter than the solutions from which the minerals precipitate is the footing of correspondent applications in medical specialty and in paleooceanography. In animate beings with skeletons mineralized with calcium, the calcium isotopic composing of soft tissues reflects the comparative rate of formation and disintegration of skeletal mineral. In worlds, alterations in the calcium isotopic composing of piss have been shown to be related to alterations in bone mineral balance. When the rate of bone formation exceeds the rate of bone reabsorption, the ration 44Ca/40Ca in soft tissue rises. Soft tissue 44Ca/40Ca falls when bone reabsorption exceeds bone formation. Because of this relationship, calcium isotopic measurings of piss or blood may be utile in the early sensing of metabolic bone diseases like osteoporosis.
A similar system exists in the ocean, where 44Ca/40Ca in saltwater tends to lift when the rate of remotion of Ca2+ from saltwater by mineral precipitation exceeds the input of new calcium into the ocean, and autumn when calcium input exceeds mineral precipitation. It follows that lifting 44Ca/40Ca corresponds to falling saltwater Ca2+ concentration, and falling 44Ca/40Ca corresponds to lifting saltwater Ca2+ concentration. In 1997 Skulan and DePaolo presented the first grounds of alteration in saltwater 44Ca/40Ca over geologic clip, along with a theoretical account of these alterations. More recent documents have confirmed this observation, showing that saltwater Ca2+ concentration is non changeless, and that the ocean likely ne'er is in “steady state” with regard to its calcium input and end product. This has of import climatological deductions, as the marine calcium rhythm is closely tied to the C rhythm ( see below ) .
Lime as constructing stuff was used since prehistoric times traveling as far back as 7000 to 14000 BC. Statues made from lime plaster have been dated into the 7 millenary BC. The first dated calcium hydroxide kiln dates back to 2500 BC and was found in Khafajah Mesopotamia. Calcium ( from Latin calcium oxide, possessive calcis, intending `` lime '' ) was known every bit early as the first century when the Ancient Romans prepared calcium hydroxide as calcium oxide. Literature dating back to 975 AD notes that plaster of Paris ( calcium sulphate ) , is utile for puting broken castanetss. It was non isolated until 1808 in England when Sir Humphry Davy electrolyzed a mixture of calcium hydroxide and mercuric oxide. Calcium metal was non available in big graduated table until the beginning of the twentieth century.
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