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The United States Constitution

The United States Constitution has proven itself to be an abiding model for representative authorities. Â It is both specific plenty to sketch the basic powers of our authorities and flexible ( through the procedure of amendments ) that it meets the challenges of modern-day life. Â It is non a inactive papers of the late eighteenth century, but a life and take a breathing beginning of democracy. Â As it was being drafted in that hot summer of 1787, several of the legendary framers called it a miracle. Â The writers of The United States Constitution sought non simply to safeguard the autonomies for which Americans had fought and died, but to integrate their rational heritage, personal strong beliefs, and regional dockets into jurisprudence, based on theoretical foundations tried and true to civilisations before America. Yet, the implicit in rules of The United States Constitution are those of the Revolution -- due procedure of jurisprudence ; a separate and independent bench ; representational authorities ; freedom of address, assembly, faith, and the imperativeness ; single province 's rights ; etc. -- revised in the visible radiation of the blue failure of the Articles of Confederation. Furthermore, by set uping a system of cheques and balances, The United States Constitution ensured that no wing of the authorities could consolidate all the powers of administration in itself.

There are general rules that govern single societies where specific criterions are decided through tribunals of jurisprudence when there is an occasional disagreement. These were originally set up by the establishing male parents of our state. Â When the establishing male parents of the United States Constitution came together to write basic guidelines that would supply cardinal legal protection and single rights for their freshly formed state, they had the duty of sketching America’s moral codification. Â Â While some of this codification was borrowed from the Greeks, Romans and English, much idea and self-contemplation of scruples went into the devising of such a United States Constitution. Â America’s new leaders were forced to utilize a system of cheques and balances governed by their ain scrupless. Â Because democracy was so new to authorities, the establishing male parents relied on their interior sense of right and incorrect, evil and good to find the moral criterions for the United States. Â

 A written Constitution serves several intents, all of  which protect the citizens of the state which are ruled by this peculiar papers.  If a Constitution was non written, assorted political groups might reason and differ as to the basic guidelines of authorities regulation.  A written Constitution offers consistence in that its significance continues through clip despite alterations in whether a state leans toward broad or conservative political orientation.  In other words as a written papers, it becomes a resource of what is tradition and accepted ; it becomes a warrant of kinds that persons will honour.  But in order for a written Constitution to be effectual and digesting, it must be written in such a mode so that it is non excessively specific.  In other words, the statements or regulations or guidelines must be written so that it fits future state of affairss.  These regulations must besides be slightly cosmopolitan in nature.  This is of import in order to guarantee that the papers does non go out-of-date. Therefore, even when a Constitution is written, it is still capable to reading.  So, even though The United States Constitution declares that Americans have freedom of address, there are readings.  For illustration, there are regulations to forestall people from defaming one another and regulations restricting lewdness or erotica.

In 1787, a few old ages after America broke off from England, the constitution we use today was made. Before that, get downing in 1777, the provinces operated under a authorities they called the `` Articles of Confederation. '' This authorities fundamentally said that each province should hold its ain independency, and run within their ain authorities. After about 6 old ages, this authorities didn & apos ; t work really good, because of civil agitation, bad trade, and rising prices. A group of people led by George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Alexander Hamilton, Benjamin Franklin, and others, believed in the constitution. These people were called Federalists. They believed that the provinces should be operated by one incorporate individual authorities. The Federalists wanted to compose a new constitution, and do a more efficient authorities, and they did. Anti-Federalists, such as Samuel Adams or Patrick Henry believed the antonym. In 1777, the articles of alliance were written. This was the first of all time constitution in the United States. The Articles didn & apos ; t truly work really good, because of a few jobs. They fundamentally said that each province was their ain authorities, and the 13 provinces weren & apos ; t truly connected under the same authorities at all. They has their ain system of money, Torahs, trade, and others, and this didn & apos ; t work good at all. Each province & apos ; s currency had different value, which made it impossible to merchandise and sell material between provinces. Inflation was a large job. The authorities was bring forthing to much money. The sum in circulation was excessively much, and as a consequence, the value of money went down. This helped people in debt, because if they borrow something in a signifier other than money ( like $ 10.00 worth of maize ) , and the value of money goes down, so it takes less maize to pay of the debt. The debitor gets a good trade that manner, but the creditor ( the other cat ) gets a bad trade. A concluding ground is that the society truly didn & apos ; t like the Washington.

Why a Fundamental law?

The demand for the Constitution grew out of jobs with the Articles of Confederation, which established a `` steadfast conference of friendly relationship '' between the provinces, and vested most power in a Congress of the Confederation. This power was, nevertheless, highly limited — the cardinal authorities conducted diplomatic negotiations and made war, set weights and steps, and was the concluding supreme authority of differences between the provinces. Crucially, it could non raise any financess itself, and was wholly dependent on the provinces themselves for the money necessary to run. Each province sent a deputation of between two and seven members to the Congress, and they voted as a axis with each province acquiring one ballot. But any determination of effect required a consentaneous ballot, which led to a authorities that was paralyzed and ineffective.

The Constitutional Convention

A main purpose of the Constitution as drafted by the Convention was to make a authorities with adequate power to move on a national degree, but without so much power that cardinal rights would be at hazard. One manner that this was accomplished was to divide the power of authorities into three subdivisions, and so to include cheques and balances on those powers to guarantee that no one subdivision of authorities gained domination. This concern originate mostly out of the experience that the delegates had with the King of England and his powerful Parliament. The powers of each subdivision are enumerated in the Constitution, with powers non assigned to them reserved to the provinces.

Much of the argument, which was conducted in secret to guarantee that delegates spoke their heads, focused on the signifier that the new legislative assembly would take. Two programs competed to go the new authorities: the Virginia Plan, which apportioned representation based on the population of each province, and the New Jersey program, which gave each province an equal ballot in Congress. The Virginia Plan was supported by the larger provinces, and the New Jersey program preferred by the smaller. In the terminal, they settled on the Great Compromise ( sometimes called the Connecticut Compromise ) , in which the House of Representatives would stand for the people as apportioned by population ; the Senate would stand for the provinces apportioned every bit ; and the President would be elected by the Electoral College. The program besides called for an independent bench.

The laminitiss besides specified a procedure by which the Fundamental law may be amended, and since its confirmation, the Constitution has been amended 27 times. In order to forestall arbitrary alterations, the procedure for doing amendments is rather burdensome. An amendment may be proposed by a two-thirds ballot of both Houses of Congress, or, if two-thirds of the provinces request one, by a convention called for that intent. The amendment must so be ratified by three-quarterss of the province legislative assemblies, or three-quarterss of conventions called in each province for confirmation. In modern times, amendments have traditionally specified a timeframe in which this must be accomplished, normally a period of several old ages. Additionally, the Constitution specifies that no amendment can deny a province equal representation in the Senate without that province 's consent.

With the inside informations and linguistic communication of the Constitution decided, the Convention got down to the work of really puting the Constitution to paper. It is written in the manus of a delegate from Pennsylvania, Gouverneur Morris, whose occupation allowed him some reign over the existent punctuation of a few clauses in the Constitution. He is besides credited with the celebrated preamble, quoted at the top of this page. On September 17, 1787, 39 of the 55 delegates signed the new papers, with many of those who refused to subscribe objecting to the deficiency of a measure of rights. At least one delegate refused to subscribe because the Constitution codified and protected bondage and the slave trade.

Ratification

James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay set out an facile defence of the new Constitution in what came to be called the Federalist Papers. Published anonymously in the newspapers The Independent Journal and The New York Packet under the name Publius between October 1787 and August 1788, the 85 articles that comprise the Federalist Papers remain to this twenty-four hours an priceless resource for understanding some of the framers ' purposes for the Constitution. The most celebrated of the articles are No. 10, which warns of the dangers of cabals and advocates a big democracy, and No. 51, which explains the construction of the Constitution, its cheques and balances, and how it protects the rights of the people.

Section 2

Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, harmonizing to their several Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excepting Indians non taxed, three fifths of all other Persons. The existent Enumeration shall be made within three Old ages after the first Meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent Term of ten Old ages, in such Manner as they shall by Law direct. The Number of Representatives shall non transcend one for every 30 Thousand, but each State shall hold at Least one Representative ; and until such numbering shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to take three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode-Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New-York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, South Carolina five, and Georgia three.

Section 3

Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequence of the first Election, they shall be divided every bit every bit as may be into three Classs. The Seats of the Senators of the first Class shall be vacated at the Expiration of the 2nd Year, of the 2nd Class at the Expiration of the 4th Year, and of the 3rd Class at the Expiration of the 6th Year, so that one tierce may be chosen every 2nd Year ; and if Vacancies happen by Resignation, or otherwise, during the Recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may do impermanent Appointments until the following Meeting of the Legislature, which shall so make full such Vacancies.

Section 7

Every Bill which shall hold passed the House of Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it become a Law, be presented to the President of the United States: If he O.K. he shall subscribe it, but if non he shall return it, with his Expostulations to that House in which it shall hold originated, who shall come in the Expostulations at big on their Journal, and continue to reconsider it. If after such Reconsideration two tierces of that House shall hold to go through the Bill, it shall be sent, together with the Expostulations, to the other House, by which it shall similarly be reconsidered, and if approved by two tierces of that House, it shall go a Law. But in all such Cases the Votes of both Houses shall be determined by Yeas and Nays, and the Names of the Persons vote for and against the Bill shall be entered on the Journal of each House severally. If any Bill shall non be returned by the President within 10 Days ( Sundays excepted ) after it shall hold been presented to him, the Same shall be a Law, in similar Manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their Adjournment prevent its Return, in which Case it shall non be a Law.

Section 1

The Electors shall run into in their several States, and ballot by Ballot for two Persons, of whom one at least shall non be an Inhabitant of the same State with themselves. And they shall do a List of all the Persons voted for, and of the Number of Votes for each ; which List they shall subscribe and attest, and transmit sealed to the Seat of the Government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the Presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the Certificates, and the Votes shall so be counted. The Person holding the greatest Number of Votes shall be the President, if such Number be a Majority of the whole Number of Electors appointed ; and if there be more than one who have such Majority, and have an equal Number of Votes, so the House of Representatives shall instantly take by Ballot one of them for President ; and if no Person have a Majority, so from the five highest on the List the said House shall in similar Manner choose the President. But in taking the President, the Votes shall be taken by States, the Representatives from each State holding one Vote ; a quorum for this Purpose shall dwell of a Member or Members from two tierces of the States, and a Majority of all the States shall be necessary to a Choice. In every Case, after the Choice of the President, the Person holding the greatest Number of Votes of the Voters shall be the Vice President. But if there should stay two or more who have equal Votes, the Senate shall take from them by Ballot the Vice-President.

Section 2

He shall hold Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to do Treaties, provided two tierces of the Senators present concur ; and he shall put up, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall name Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court, and all other Military officers of the United States, whose Appointments are non herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by Law: but the Congress may by Law vest the Appointment of such inferior Military officers, as they think proper, in the President entirely, in the Courts of Law, or in the Heads of Departments.

Section 2

The judicial Power shall widen to all Cases, in Law and Equity, originating under this Constitution, the Laws of the United States, and Treaties made, or which shall be made, under their Authority ; -to all Cases impacting Ambassadors, other public curates and Consuls ; -to all Cases of admiralty and nautical Jurisdiction ; -to Controversies to which the United States shall be a Party ; -to Controversies between two or more States ; -between a State and Citizens of another State ; -between Citizens of different States ; -between Citizens of the same State claiming Lands under Grants of different States, and between a State, or the Citizens thereof, and foreign States, Citizens or Subjects.

Article V

The Congress, whenever two tierces of both Houses shall hold it necessary, shall suggest Amendments to this Constitution, or, on the Application of the Legislatures of two tierces of the several States, shall name a Convention for suggesting Amendments, which, in either Case, shall be valid to all Purposes and Purposes, as Part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of three fourths of the several States, or by Conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one or the other Mode of Ratification may be proposed by the Congress ; Provided that no Amendment which may be made prior to the Year One 1000 eight hundred and eight shall in any Manner affect the first and 4th Clauses in the Ninth Section of the first Article ; and that no State, without its Consent, shall be deprived of its equal Right to vote in the Senate.

Amendment Twelve

The Electors shall run into in their several provinces and ballot by ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall non be an dweller of the same province with themselves ; they shall call in their ballots the individual voted for as President, and in distinguishable ballots the individual voted for as Vice-President, and they shall do distinguishable lists of all individuals voted for as President, and of all individuals voted for as Vice-President, and of the figure of ballots for each, which lists they shall subscribe and attest, and transmit sealed to the place of the authorities of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate ; -The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certifications and the ballots shall so be counted ; -The individual holding the greatest Number of ballots for President, shall be the President, if such figure be a bulk of the whole figure of Voters appointed ; and if no individual have such bulk, so from the individuals holding the highest Numberss non transcending three on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall take instantly, by ballot, the President. But in taking the President, the ballots shall be taken by provinces, the representation from each province holding one ballot ; a quorum for this purpose shall dwell of a member or members from two-thirds of the provinces, and a bulk of all the provinces shall be necessary to a pick. And if the House of Representatives shall non take a President whenever the right of pick shall devolve upon them, before the 4th twenty-four hours of March following followers, so the Vice-President shall move as President, as in the instance of the decease or other constitutional disablement of the President-The individual holding the greatest figure of ballots as Vice-President, shall be the Vice-President, if such figure be a bulk of the whole figure of Voters appointed, and if no individual have a bulk, so from the two highest Numberss on the list, the Senate shall take the Vice-President ; a quorum for the purpose shall dwell of two-thirds of the whole figure of Senators, and a bulk of the whole figure shall be necessary to a pick. But no individual constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the United States.

Section 2

Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States harmonizing to their several Numberss, numbering the whole figure of individuals in each State, excepting Indians non taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the pick of voters for President and Vice President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male dwellers of such State, being 21 old ages of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any manner abridged, except for engagement in rebellion, or other offense, the footing of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the figure of such male citizens shall bear to the whole figure of male citizens twenty-one old ages of age in such State.

Section 3

No individual shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or voter of President and Vice President, or keep any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, holding antecedently taken an curse, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State legislative assembly, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to back up the Fundamental law of the United States, shall hold engaged in rebellion or rebellion against the same, or given assistance or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may by a ballot of two-thirds of each House, take such disablement.

Section 3

If, at the clip fixed for the beginning of the term of the President, the President elect shall hold died, the Vice President elect shall go President. If a President shall non hold been chosen before the clip fixed for the beginning of his term, or if the President elect shall hold failed to measure up, so the Vice President elect shall move as President until a President shall hold qualified ; and the Congress may by jurisprudence provide for the instance wherein neither a President chosen nor a Vice President elect shall hold qualified, declaring who shall so move as President, or the mode in which 1 who is to move shall be selected, and such individual shall move consequently until a President or Vice President shall hold qualified.

Section 1

No individual shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice, and no individual who has held the office of President, or acted as President, for more than two old ages of a term to which some other individual was elected President shall be elected to the office of the President more than one time. But this Article shall non use to any individual keeping the office of President, when this Article was proposed by the Congress, and shall non forestall any individual who may be keeping the office of President, or moving as President, during the term within which this Article becomes operative from keeping the office of President or moving as President during the balance of such term.

Section 4

Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that no inability exists, he shall restart the powers and responsibilities of his office unless the Vice President and a bulk of either the chief officers of the executive section or of such other organic structure as Congress may by jurisprudence provide, transmit within four yearss to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to dispatch the powers and responsibilities of his office. Thereupon Congress shall make up one's mind the issue, piecing within 48 hours for that intent if non in session. If the Congress, within 21 yearss after reception of the latter written declaration, or, if Congress is non in session, within 21 yearss after Congress is required to piece, determines by two-thirds ballot of both Houses that the President is unable to dispatch the powers and responsibilities of his office, the Vice President shall go on to dispatch the same as Acting President ; otherwise, the President shall restart the powers and responsibilities of his office.

More Informations

This organisation was founded in response to the turning concern that disobedience with the Constitution for the United States of America and most province fundamental laws is making a crisis of legitimacy that threatens freedom and civil rights. Although the focal point here is on authorities in the United States, coverage besides includes the remainder of the universe, and private every bit good as public organisations. We maintain that the rules of constitutional republicanism are cosmopolitan, and applicable to all states, although non good understood or upheld by most. We besides examine the related rules of federalism and nomocracy, the regulation of jurisprudence, of nomology, the scientific discipline of jurisprudence, and demo how those rules are applicable to work outing the cardinal job of avoiding inordinate or imbalanced concentrations of power.

Fundamental law

A constitution is a set of cardinal rules or established case in points harmonizing to which a province or other organisation is governed. These regulations together make up, i.e. constitute, what the entity is. When these rules are written down into a individual papers or set of legal paperss, those paperss may be said to incarnate a written constitution ; if they are written down in a individual comprehensive papers, it is said to incarnate a statute constitution. Some fundamental laws ( such as the constitution of the United Kingdom ) are uncodified, but written in legion cardinal Acts of a legislative assembly, tribunal instances or pacts.

Fundamental laws concern different degrees of organisations, from autonomous provinces to companies and unincorporated associations. A pact which establishes an international organisation is besides its constitution, in that it would specify how that organisation is constituted. Within provinces, a constitution defines the rules upon which the province is based, the process in which Torahs are made and by whom. Some fundamental laws, particularly statute fundamental laws, besides act as clippers of province power, by set uping lines which a province 's swayers can non traverse, such as cardinal rights.

General characteristics

The Latin term extremist vires describes activities of functionaries within an organisation or civil order that autumn outside the constitutional or statutory authorization of those functionaries. For illustration, a pupils ' brotherhood may be prohibited as an organisation from prosecuting in activities non refering pupils ; if the brotherhood becomes involved in non-student activities these activities are considered extremist vires of the brotherhood 's charter, and cipher would be compelled by the charter to follow them. An illustration from the constitutional jurisprudence of autonomous provinces would be a provincial authorities in a federal province seeking to pass in an country entirely enumerated to the federal authorities in the constitution, such as signing a pact. Extremist vires gives a legal justification for the forced surcease of such action, which might be enforced by the people with the support of a determination of the bench, in a instance of judicial reappraisal. A misdemeanor of rights by an functionary would be extremist vires because a ( constitutional ) right is a limitation on the powers of authorities, and hence that functionary would be exerting powers they do non hold.

In most but non all modern states the constitution has supremacy over ordinary Statutory jurisprudence ( see Uncodified constitution below ) ; in such provinces when an official act is unconstitutional, i.e. it is non a power granted to the authorities by the constitution, that act is void and null, and the nullification is ab initio, that is, from origin, non from the day of the month of the determination. It was ne'er `` jurisprudence '' , even though, if it had been a legislative act or statutory proviso, it might hold been adopted harmonizing to the processs for following statute law. Sometimes the job is non that a legislative act is unconstitutional, but the application of it is, on a peculiar juncture, and a tribunal may make up one's mind that while there are ways it could be applied that are constitutional, that case was non allowed or legitimate. In such a instance, merely the application may be ruled unconstitutional. Historically, the redress for such misdemeanors have been requests for common jurisprudence writs, such as quo warranto.

Pre-modern fundamental laws

Aristotle ( ca 350 BC ) was the first to do a formal differentiation between ordinary jurisprudence and constitutional jurisprudence, set uping thoughts of constitution and constitutionalism, and trying to sort different signifiers of constitutional authorities. The most basic definition he used to depict a constitution in general footings was `` the agreement of the offices in a province '' . In his works Constitution of Athens, Politics, and Nicomachean Ethics he explores different fundamental laws of his twenty-four hours, including those of Athens, Sparta, and Carthage. He classified both what he regarded every bit good and what he regarded as bad fundamental laws, and came to the decision that the best constitution was a assorted system, including monarchal, blue, and democratic elements. He besides distinguished between citizens, who had the right to take part in the province, and non-citizens and slaves, who did non.

Many of the Germanic people that filled the power vacuity left by the Western Roman Empire in the Early Middle Ages codified their Torahs. One of the first of these Germanic jurisprudence codifications to be written was the Visigothic Code of Euric ( 471 ) . This was followed by the Lex Burgundionum, using separate codifications for Germans and for Romans ; the Pactus Alamannorum ; and the Salic Law of the Franks, all written shortly after 500. In 506, the Breviarum or `` Lex Romana '' of Alaric II, male monarch of the Visigoths, adopted and consolidated the Codex Theodosianus together with assorted earlier Roman Torahs. Systems that appeared slightly ulterior include the Edictum Rothari of the Lombards ( 643 ) , the Lex Visigothorum ( 654 ) , the Lex Alamannorum ( 730 ) and the Lex Frisionum ( ca 785 ) . These Continental codifications were all composed in Latin, while Anglo-Saxon was used for those of England, get downing with the Code of Æthelberht of Kent ( 602 ) . In ca. 893, Alfred the Great combined this and two other earlier Saxon codifications, with assorted Mosaic and Christian principles, to bring forth the Doom book codification of Torahs for England.

The Constitution of Medina ( Arabic: صحیفة المدینه‎‎ , Ṣaḥīfat al-Madīna ) , besides known as the Charter of Medina, was drafted by the Islamic prophesier Muhammad after his flight ( hijra to Yathrib where he became political leader. It constituted a formal understanding between Muhammad and all of the important folks and households of Yathrib ( subsequently known as Medina ) , including Muslims, Jews, and heathens. The papers was drawn up with the expressed concern of conveying to an terminal the acrimonious intertribal combat between the kins of the Aws ( Aus ) and Khazraj within Medina. To this consequence it instituted a figure of rights and duties for the Muslim, Jewish, and heathen communities of Medina conveying them within the crease of one community—the Ummah. The precise dating of the Constitution of Medina remains debated but by and large bookmans agree it was written shortly after the Hijra ( 622 ) .

The Nomocanon of Saint Sava ( Serbian: Законоправило/Zakonopravilo ) was the first Serbian constitution from 1219. This legal act was good developed. St. Sava 's Nomocanon was the digest of Civil jurisprudence, based on Roman Law and Canon jurisprudence, based on Ecumenical Councils and its basic intent was to form operation of the immature Serbian land and the Serbian church. Saint Sava began the work on the Serbian Nomocanon in 1208 while being at Mount Athos, utilizing The Nomocanon in Fourteen Titles, Synopsis of Stefan the Efesian, Nomocanon of John Scholasticus, Ecumenical Councils ' paperss, which he modified with the canonical commentaries of Aristinos and Joannes Zonaras, local church meetings, regulations of the Holy Fathers, the jurisprudence of Moses, interlingual rendition of Prohiron and the Byzantine emperors ' Novellae ( most were taken from Justinian 's Novellae ) . The Nomocanon was wholly new digest of civil and canonical ordinances, taken from the Byzantine beginnings, but completed and reformed by St. Sava to work decently in Serbia. Beside decrees that organized the life of church, there are assorted norms sing civil life, most of them were taken from Prohiron. Legal grafts of Roman-Byzantine jurisprudence became the footing of the Serbian medieval jurisprudence. The kernel of Zakonopravilo was based on Corpus Iuris Civilis.

Around 1240, the Coptic Egyptian Christian author, 'Abul Fada'il Ibn al-'Assal, wrote the Fetha Negest in Arabic. 'Ibn al-Assal took his Torahs partially from apostolic Hagiographas and Mosaic jurisprudence, and partially from the former Byzantine codification. There are a few historical records claiming that this jurisprudence codification was translated into Ge'ez and entered Ethiopia around 1450 in the reign of Zara Yaqob. Even so, its first recorded usage in the map of a constitution ( supreme jurisprudence of the land ) is with Sarsa Dengel get downing in 1563. The Fetha Negest remained the supreme jurisprudence in Ethiopia until 1931, when a modern-style Fundamental law was foremost granted by Emperor Haile Selassie I.

In the Principality of Catalonia, the Catalan fundamental laws were promulgated by the Court from 1283 ( or even two centuries before, if we consider the Usatges of Barcelona as portion of the digest of Constitutions ) until 1716, when Philip V of Spain gave the Nueva Planta edicts, completing with the historical Torahs of Catalonia. These Fundamental laws were normally made officially as a royal enterprise, but required for its blessing or revoke the favourable ballot of the Catalan Courts, the mediaeval ancestor of the modern Parliaments. These Torahs had, as the other modern fundamental laws, distinction over other Torahs, and they could non be contradicted by mere edicts or edicts of the male monarch.

Historians including Donald Grinde, Bruce Johansen and others believe that the Iroquois constitution provided inspiration for the United States Constitution and in 1988 was recognised by a declaration in Congress. The thesis is non considered believable by some bookmans. Stanford University historian Jack N. Rakove stated that `` The voluminous records we have for the constitutional arguments of the late 1780s contain no important mentions to the Iroquois '' and stated that there are ample European case in points to the democratic establishments of the United States. Francis Jennings noted that the statement made by Benjamin Franklin often quoted by advocates of the thesis does non back up this thought as it is recommending for a brotherhood against these `` ignorant barbarians '' and called the thought `` absurd '' . Bruce Johansen contends Jennings, Tooker etc. have `` humourlessly missed the dry nature of Franklin 's statement '' and prevail in `` disregarding the relevant beginnings '' . Anthropologist Dean Snow stated that though Franklin 's Albany Plan may hold drawn some inspiration from the Iroquois League, there is small grounds that either the Plan or the Constitution drew well from this beginning and argues that `` .such claims clutter and minimize the subtle and singular characteristics of Iroquois authorities. The two signifiers of authorities are typical and separately singular in construct. ''

Modern fundamental laws

The English Protectorate that was set up by Oliver Cromwell after the English Civil War promulgated the first elaborate written constitution adopted by a modern province ; it was called the Instrument of Government. This formed the footing of authorities for the short lived republic from 1653 to 1657 by supplying a legal principle for the increasing power of Cromwell, after Parliament systematically failed to regulate efficaciously. Most of the constructs and thoughts embedded into modern constitutional theory, particularly bicameralism, separation of powers, the written constitution, and judicial reappraisal, can be traced back to the experiments of that period.

Drafted by Major-General John Lambert in 1653, the Instrument of Government included elements incorporated from an earlier papers `` Heads of Proposals '' , which had been agreed to by the Army Council in 1647, as a set of propositions intended to be a footing for a constitutional colony after King Charles I was defeated in the First English Civil War. Charles had rejected the propositions, but before the start of the Second Civil War, the Grandees of the New Model Army had presented the Heads of Proposals as their option to the more extremist Agreement of the People presented by the Agitators and their civilian protagonists at the Putney Debates.

The Instrument of Government was replaced in May 1657 by England 's 2nd, and last, statute constitution, the Humble Request and Advice, proposed by Sir Christopher Packe. The Request offered familial monarchy to Oliver Cromwell, asserted Parliament 's control over publishing new revenue enhancement, provided an independent council to rede the male monarch and safeguarded 'Triennial ' meetings of Parliament. A modified version of the Humble Request with the clause on kingship removed was ratified on 25 May. This eventually met its death in concurrence with the decease of Cromwell and the Restoration of the monarchy.

All of the British settlements in North America that were to go the 13 original United States, adopted their ain fundamental laws in 1776 and 1777, during the American Revolution ( and before the ulterior Articles of Confederation and United States Constitution ) , with the exclusions of Massachusetts, Connecticut and Rhode Island. The Commonwealth of Massachusetts adopted its Fundamental law in 1780, the oldest still-functioning constitution of any U.S. province ; while Connecticut and Rhode Island officially continued to run under their old colonial charters, until they adopted their first province fundamental laws in 1818 and 1843, severally.

Agreements and Fundamental laws of Laws and Freedoms of the Zaporizian Host was written in 1710 by Pylyp Orlyk, hetman of the Zaporozhian Host. It was written to set up a free Zaporozhian-Ukrainian Republic, with the support of Charles XII of Sweden. It is noteworthy in that it established a democratic criterion for the separation of powers in authorities between the legislative, executive, and judiciary subdivisions, good before the publication of Montesquieu 's Spirit of the Laws. This Constitution besides limited the executive authorization of the hetman, and established a democratically elected Cossack parliament called the General Council. However, Orlyk 's undertaking for an independent Ukrainian State ne'er materialized, and his constitution, written in expatriate, ne'er went into consequence.

Principles of constitutional design

After tribal people foremost began to populate in metropoliss and set up states, many of these functioned harmonizing to unwritten imposts, while some developed bossy, even oppressive sovereigns, who ruled by edict, or mere personal caprice. Such regulation led some minds to take the place that what mattered was non the design of governmental establishments and operations, every bit much as the character of the swayers. This position can be seen in Plato, who called for regulation by `` philosopher-kings. '' Later authors, such as Aristotle, Cicero and Plutarch, would analyze designs for authorities from a legal and historical point of view.

The Renaissance brought a series of political philosophers who wrote implied unfavorable judgments of the patterns of sovereign and sought to place rules of constitutional design that would be probably to give more effectual and merely administration from their point of views. This began with resurgence of the Roman jurisprudence of states construct and its application to the dealingss among states, and they sought to set up customary `` Torahs of war and peace '' to better wars and do them less likely. This led to considerations of what authorization sovereign or other functionaries have and do n't hold, from where that authorization derives, and the redresss for the maltreatment of such authorization.

A seminal occasion in this line of discourse arose in England from the Civil War, the Cromwellian Protectorate, the Hagiographas of Thomas Hobbes, Samuel Rutherford, the Levellers, John Milton, and James Harrington, taking to the argument between Robert Filmer, reasoning for the Godhead right of sovereigns, on the one side, and on the other, Henry Neville, James Tyrrell, Algernon Sidney, and John Locke. What arose from the latter was a construct of authorities being erected on the foundations of first, a province of nature governed by natural Torahs, so a province of society, established by a societal contract or compact, which bring implicit in natural or societal Torahs, before authoritiess are officially established on them as foundations.

Along the manner several authors examined how the design of authorities was of import, even if the authorities were headed by a sovereign. They besides classified assorted historical illustrations of governmental designs, typically into democracies, nobilities, or monarchies, and considered how merely and effectual each tended to be and why, and how the advantages of each might be obtained by uniting elements of each into a more complex design that balanced viing inclinations. Some, such as Montesquieu, besides examined how the maps of authorities, such as legislative, executive, and judicial, might suitably be separated into subdivisions. The prevalent subject among these authors was that the design of fundamental laws is non wholly arbitrary or a affair of gustatory sensation. They by and large held that there are underlying rules of design that constrain all fundamental laws for every civil order or organisation. Each built on the thoughts of those before refering what those rules might be.

The ulterior Hagiographas of Orestes Brownson would seek to explicate what constitutional interior decorators were seeking to make. Harmonizing to Brownson there are, in a sense, three `` fundamental laws '' involved: The first the constitution of nature that includes all of what was called `` natural jurisprudence. '' The 2nd is the constitution of society, an unwritten and normally understood set of regulations for the society formed by a societal contract before it establishes a authorities, by which it establishes the 3rd, a constitution of authorities. The 2nd would include such elements as the devising of determinations by public conventions called by public notice and conducted by established regulations of process. Each constitution must be consistent with, and deduce its authorization from, the 1s before it, every bit good as from a historical act of society formation or constitutional confirmation. Brownson argued that a province is a society with effectual rule over a chiseled district, that consent to a well-designed constitution of authorities arises from presence on that district, and that it is possible for commissariats of a written constitution of authorities to be `` unconstitutional '' if they are inconsistent with the fundamental laws of nature or society. Brownson argued that it is non ratification entirely that makes a written constitution of authorities legitimate, but that it must besides be aptly designed and applied.

Other authors have argued that such considerations apply non merely to all national fundamental laws of authorities, but besides to the fundamental laws of private organisations, that it is non an accident that the fundamental laws that tend to fulfill their members contain certain elements, as a lower limit, or that their commissariats tend to go really similar as they are amended after experience with their usage. Commissariats that give rise to certain sorts of inquiries are seen to necessitate extra commissariats for how to decide those inquiries, and commissariats that offer no class of action may best be omitted and left to policy determinations. Commissariats that struggle with what Brownson and others can spot are the underlying `` fundamental laws '' of nature and society tend to be hard or impossible to put to death, or to take to insolvable differences.

Political economic system theory respects fundamental laws as coordination devices that help citizens to forestall swayers from mistreating power. If the people can organize a response to patrol authorities functionaries in the face of a constitutional mistake, so the authorities have the inducements to honour the rights that the constitution warrants. An alternate position considers that fundamental laws are non enforced by the citizens at-large, but instead by the administrative powers of the province. Because swayers can non themselves implement their policies, they need to trust on a set of organisations ( ground forcess, tribunals, constabulary bureaus, revenue enhancement aggregators ) to implement it. In this place, they can straight approve the authorities by declining to collaborate, disenabling the authorization of the swayers. Therefore, fundamental laws could be characterized by a self-enforcing equilibria between the swayers and powerful decision makers.

Governmental fundamental laws

Most normally, the term constitution refers to a set of regulations and rules that define the nature and extent of authorities. Most fundamental laws seek to modulate the relationship between establishments of the province, in a basic sense the relationship between the executive, legislative assembly and the bench, but besides the relationship of establishments within those subdivisions. For illustration, executive subdivisions can be divided into a caput of authorities, authorities departments/ministries, executive bureaus and a civil service/administration. Most fundamental laws besides attempt to specify the relationship between persons and the province, and to set up the wide rights of single citizens. It is therefore the most basic jurisprudence of a district from which all the other Torahs and regulations are hierarchically derived ; in some districts it is in fact called `` Basic Law '' .

Key characteristics

States that have codified fundamental laws usually give the constitution domination over ordinary legislative act jurisprudence. That is, if there is any struggle between a legal legislative act and the statute constitution, all or portion of the legislative act can be declared extremist vires by a tribunal, and struck down as unconstitutional. In add-on, exceeding processs are frequently required to amend a constitution. These processs may include: convocation of a particular component assembly or constitutional convention, necessitating a supermajority of legislators ' ballots, the consent of regional legislative assemblies, a referendum procedure, and/or other processs that make amending a constitution more hard than go throughing a simple jurisprudence.

Some fundamental laws are mostly, but non entirely, codified. For illustration, in the Constitution of Australia, most of its cardinal political rules and ordinances refering the relationship between subdivisions of authorities, and refering the authorities and the person are codified in a individual papers, the Constitution of the Commonwealth of Australia. However, the presence of legislative acts with constitutional significance, viz. the Statute of Westminster, as adopted by the Commonwealth in the Statute of Westminster Adoption Act 1942, and the Australia Act 1986 means that Australia 's constitution is non contained in a individual constitutional papers. It means the Constitution of Australia is uncodified, it besides contain constitutional conventions, therefore is partly unwritten.

The presence or deficiency of intrenchment is a cardinal characteristic of fundamental laws. An entrenched constitution can non be altered in any manner by a legislative assembly as portion of its normal concern refering ordinary statutory Torahs, but can merely be amended by a different and more burdensome process. There may be a demand for a particular organic structure to be set up, or the proportion of favorable ballots of members of bing legislative organic structures may be required to be higher to go through a constitutional amendment than for legislative acts. The entrenched clauses of a constitution can make different grades of intrenchment, runing from merely excepting constitutional amendment from the normal concern of a legislative assembly, to doing certain amendments either more hard than normal alterations, or out under any fortunes.

In fundamental laws that are non entrenched, no particular process is required for alteration. Lack of intrenchment is a characteristic of uncodified fundamental laws ; the constitution is non recognised with any higher legal position than ordinary legislative acts. In the UK, for illustration Torahs which modify written or unwritten commissariats of the constitution are passed on a simple bulk in Parliament. No particular `` constitutional amendment '' process is required. The rule of parliamentary sovereignty holds that no autonomous parliament may be bound by the Acts of the Apostless of its predecessors ; and there is no higher authorization that can make jurisprudence which binds Parliament. The crowned head is nominally the caput of province with of import powers, such as the power to declare war ; the uncodified and unwritten constitution removes all these powers in pattern.

In pattern democratic authoritiess do non utilize the deficiency of intrenchment of the constitution to enforce the will of the authorities or get rid of all civil rights, as they could in theory do, but the differentiation between constitutional and other jurisprudence is still slightly arbitrary, normally following historical rules embodied in of import past statute law. For illustration, several British Acts of Parliament such as the Bill of Rights, Human Rights Act and, prior to the creative activity of Parliament, Magna Carta are regarded as allowing cardinal rights and rules which are treated as about constitutional. Several rights that in another province might be guaranteed by constitution have so been abolished or modified by the British parliament in the early twenty-first century, including the unconditioned right to test by jury, the right to hush without damaging illation, allowable detainment before a charge is made extended from 24 hours to 42 yearss, and the right non to be tried twice for the same offense.

The strongest degree of entrenchment exists in those fundamental laws that province that some of their most cardinal rules are absolute, i.e. certain articles may non be amended under any fortunes. An amendment of a constitution that is made systematically with that constitution, except that it violates the absolute non-modifiability, can be called an unconstitutional constitutional jurisprudence. Ultimately it is ever possible for a constitution to be overthrown by internal or external force, for illustration, a revolution ( possibly claiming to be justified by the right to revolution ) or invasion. In the Constitution of India, the Supreme Court has created the Doctrine of Basic Structure in Kesavananda Bharti 's instance ( 1973 ) saying that the indispensable characteristics of the Basic construction can non be amended by the Parliament. The Court has identified judicial reappraisal, independency of Judiciary, free and just election, nucleus of Fundamental Rights as a few of the indispensable characteristics which are unamendable. However, the Supreme Court did non place specific commissariats which are in the class of absolute intrenchment. A critical analysis of the Doctrine of Basic Structure appears in Professor M.K. Bhandari 's book Basic Structure of Indian Constitution - A Critical Reconsideration.

Another illustration is the Fundamental law of Honduras, which has an article saying that the article itself and certain other articles can non be changed in any fortunes. Article 374 of the Honduras Constitution asserts this unmodifiability, stating, `` It is non possible to reform, in any instance, the predating article, the present article, the constitutional articles mentioning to the signifier of authorities, to the national district, to the presidential period, the prohibition to function once more as President of the Republic, the citizen who has performed under any rubric in effect of which she/he can non be President of the Republic in the subsequent period. '' This unmodifiability article played an of import function in the 2009 Honduran constitutional crisis.

In a unitary province, sovereignty resides in the province itself, and the constitution determines this. The district of the province may be divided into parts, but they are non autonomous and are low-level to the province. In the UK, the constitutional philosophy of Parliamentary sovereignty dictates than sovereignty is finally contained at the Centre. Some powers have been devolved to Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales ( but non England ) . Some unitary provinces ( Spain is an illustration ) devolve more and more power to sub-national authoritiess until the province maps in pattern much like a federal province.

In parliamentary systems, Cabinet Ministers are accountable to Parliament, but it is the premier curate who appoints and dismisses them. In the instance of the United Kingdom and other states with a monarchy, it is the sovereign who appoints and dismisses curates, on the advice of the premier curate. In bend the premier curate will vacate if the authorities loses the assurance of the parliament ( or a portion of it ) . Assurance can be lost if the authorities loses a ballot of no assurance or, depending on the state, loses a peculiarly of import ballot in parliament, such as ballot on the budget. When a authorities loses assurance, it stays in office until a new authorities is formed ; something which usually but non needfully required the retention of a general election.

Facade fundamental laws

Italian political theoretician Giovanni Sartori noted the being of national fundamental laws which are a frontage for autocratic beginnings of power. While such paperss may show regard for human rights or set up an independent bench, they may be ignored when the authorities feels threatened, or ne'er put into pattern. An utmost illustration was the Constitution of the Soviet Union that on paper supported freedom of assembly and freedom of address ; nevertheless, citizens who transgressed unwritten bounds were summarily imprisoned. The illustration demonstrates that the protections and benefits of a constitution are finally provided non through its written footings but through respect by authorities and society to its rules. A constitution may alter from being existent to a frontage and back once more as democratic and bossy authoritiess win each other.

Constitutional tribunals

Fundamental laws are frequently, but by no agency ever, protected by a legal organic structure whose occupation it is to construe those fundamental laws and, where applicable, declare null executive and legislative Acts of the Apostless which infringe the constitution. In some states, such as Germany, this map is carried out by a dedicated constitutional tribunal which performs this ( and merely this ) map. In other states, such as Ireland, the ordinary tribunals may execute this map in add-on to their other duties. While elsewhere, like in the United Kingdom, the construct of declaring an act to be unconstitutional does non be.

Section 2

3: Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, harmonizing to their several Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excepting Indians non taxed, three fifths of all other Persons.2 The existent Enumeration shall be made within three Old ages after the first Meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent Term of ten Old ages, in such Manner as they shall by Law direct. The Number of Representatives shall non transcend one for every 30 Thousand, but each State shall hold at Least one Representative ; and until such numbering shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to chuse three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode-Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New-York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, South Carolina five, and Georgia three.

Section 3

2: Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequence of the first Election, they shall be divided every bit every bit as may be into three Classs. The Seats of the Senators of the first Class shall be vacated at the Expiration of the 2nd Year, of the 2nd Class at the Expiration of the 4th Year, and of the 3rd Class at the Expiration of the 6th Year, so that one tierce may be chosen every 2nd Year ; and if Vacancies happen by Resignation, or otherwise, during the Recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may do impermanent Appointments until the following Meeting of the Legislature, which shall so make full such Vacancies.4

Section 7

2: Every Bill which shall hold passed the House of Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it become a Law, be presented to the President of the United States ; If he O.K. he shall subscribe it, but if non he shall return it, with his Expostulations to that House in which it shall hold originated, who shall come in the Expostulations at big on their Journal, and continue to reconsider it. If after such Reconsideration two tierces of that House shall hold to go through the Bill, it shall be sent, together with the Expostulations, to the other House, by which it shall similarly be reconsidered, and if approved by two tierces of that House, it shall go a Law. But in all such Cases the Votes of both Houses shall be determined by yeas and Nays, and the Names of the Persons vote for and against the Bill shall be entered on the Journal of each House severally. If any Bill shall non be returned by the President within 10 Days ( Sundays excepted ) after it shall hold been presented to him, the Same shall be a Law, in similar Manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their Adjournment prevent its Return, in which Case it shall non be a Law.

Section 1

3: The Voters shall run into in their several States, and ballot by Ballot for two Persons, of whom one at least shall non be an Inhabitant of the same State with themselves. And they shall do a List of all the Persons voted for, and of the Number of Votes for each ; which List they shall subscribe and attest, and transmit sealed to the Seat of the Government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the Presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the Certificates, and the Votes shall so be counted. The Person holding the greatest Number of Votes shall be the President, if such Number be a Majority of the whole Number of Electors appointed ; and if there be more than one who have such Majority, and have an equal Number of Votes, so the House of Representatives shall instantly chuse by Ballot one of them for President ; and if no Person have a Majority, so from the five highest on the List the said House shall in similar Manner chuse the President. But in chusing the President, the Votes shall be taken by States, the Representation from each State holding one Vote ; A quorum for this Purpose shall dwell of a Member or Members from two tierces of the States, and a Majority of all the States shall be necessary to a Choice. In every Case, after the Choice of the President, the Person holding the greatest Number of Votes of the Voters shall be the Vice President. But if there should stay two or more who have equal Votes, the Senate shall chuse from them by Ballot the Vice President.8

Section 2

2: He shall hold Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to do Treaties, provided two tierces of the Senators present concur ; and he shall put up, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall name Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court, and all other Military officers of the United States, whose Appointments are non herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by Law: but the Congress may by Law vest the Appointment of such inferior Military officers, as they think proper, in the President entirely, in the Courts of Law, or in the Heads of Departments.

Section 2

1: The judicial Power shall widen to all Cases, in Law and Equity, originating under this Constitution, the Laws of the United States, and Treaties made, or which shall be made, under their Authority ; —to all Cases impacting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls ; —to all Cases of admiralty and nautical Jurisdiction ; —to Controversies to which the United States shall be a Party ; —to Controversies between two or more States ; —between a State and Citizens of another State ; 10 —between Citizens of different States, —between Citizens of the same State claiming Lands under Grants of different States, and between a State, or the Citizens thereof, and foreign States, Citizens or Subjects.

Article V ( Article 5 - Manner of Amendment )

The Congress, whenever two tierces of both Houses shall hold it necessary, shall suggest Amendments to this Constitution, or, on the Application of the Legislatures of two tierces of the several States, shall name a Convention for suggesting Amendments, which, in either Case, shall be valid to all Purposes and Purposes, as Part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of three fourths of the several States, or by Conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one or the other Mode of Ratification may be proposed by the Congress ; Provided that no Amendment which may be made prior to the Year One 1000 eight hundred and eight shall in any Manner affect the first and 4th Clauses in the Ninth Section of the first Article ; and that no State, without its Consent, shall be deprived of its equal Right to vote in the Senate.

Letter of Transmittal

Resolved, That the preceeding Constitution be laid before the United States in Congress assembled, and that it is the Opinion of this Convention, that it should subsequently be submitted to a Convention of Delegates, chosen in each State by the People thereof, under the Recommendation of its Legislature, for their Assent and Ratification ; and that each Convention acceding to, and signing the Same, should give Notice thereof to the United States in Congress assembled. Resolved, That it is the Opinion of this Convention, that every bit shortly as the Conventions of nine States shall hold ratified this Constitution, the United States in Congress assembled should repair a Day on which Voters should be appointed by the States which shall hold ratified the same, and a Day on which the Electors should piece to vote for the President, and the Time and Place for get downing Proceedings under this Constitution. That after such Publication the Voters should be appointed, and the Senators and Representatives elected: That the Voters should run into on the Day fixed for the Election of the President, and should convey their Votes certified, signed, sealed and directed, as the Constitution requires, to the Secretary of the United States in Congress assembled, that the Senators and Representatives should convene at the Time and Place assigned ; that the Senators should name a President of the Senate, for the exclusive Purpose of having, opening and numbering the Votes for President ; and, that after he shall be chosen, the Congress, together with the President, should, without Delay, proceed to put to death this Constitution.

Letter of Transmittal to the President of Congress

Sir: We have now the award to subject to the consideration of the United States in Congress assembled, that Constitution which has appeared to us the most advisable. The friends of our state have long seen and desired that the power of doing war, peace, and pacts, that of imposing money, and modulating commercialism, and the letter writer executive and judicial governments, should be to the full and effectually vested in the General Government of the Union ; but the improperness of deputing such extended trust to one organic structure of work forces is apparent: hence consequences the necessity of a different organisation. It is evidently infeasible in the Federal Government of these States to procure all rights of independent sovereignty to each, and yet supply for the involvement and safety of all. Persons come ining into society must give up a portion of autonomy to continue the remainder. The magnitude of the forfeit must depend every bit good on state of affairs and circumstance, as on the object to be obtained. It is at all times hard to pull with preciseness the line between those rights which must be surrendered, and those which may be preserved ; and, on the present juncture, this trouble was increased by a difference among the several States as to their state of affairs, extent, wonts, and peculiar involvements. In all our deliberations on this topic, we kept steadily in our position that which appears to us the greatest involvement of every true American, the consolidation of our Union, in which is involved our prosperity, felicitousness, safety—perhaps our national being. This of import consideration, earnestly and profoundly impressed on our heads, led each State in the Convention to be less stiff on points of inferior magnitude than might hold been otherwise expected ; and therefore, the Constitution which we now present is the consequence of a spirit of cordiality, and of that common respect and grant, which the distinctive feature of our political state of affairs rendered indispensable. That it will run into the full and full approbation of every State is non, possibly, to be expected ; but each will, doubtless, see, that had her involvement entirely been consulted, the effects might hold been peculiarly disagreeable or deleterious to others ; that it is apt to as few exclusions as could moderately hold been expected, we hope and believe ; that it may advance the permanent public assistance of that Country so beloved to us all, and procure her freedom and felicity, is our most fervent want. With great regard, we have the award to be, SIR, your Excellency 's most obedient and low retainers: GEORGE WASHINGTON, President. By the consentaneous order of the convention. His Excellency the President of Congress.

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Article the first... After the first numbering required by the first Article of the Constitution, there shall be one Representative for every 30 1000, until the figure shall amount to one hundred, after which, the proportion shall be so regulated by Congress, that there shall be non less than one 100 Representatives, nor less than one Representative for every 40 1000 individuals, until the figure of Representatives shall amount to two 100s, after which the proportion shall be so regulated by Congress, that there shall non be less than two 100 Representatives, nor more than one Representative for every 50 thousand individuals.

( Amendment 12 - Election of President )

The Electors shall run into in their several provinces, and ballot by ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall non be an dweller of the same province with themselves ; they shall call in their ballots the individual voted for as President, and in distinguishable ballots the individual voted for as Vice-President, and they shall do distinguishable lists of all individuals voted for as President, and of all individuals voted for as Vice-President, and of the figure of ballots for each, which lists they shall subscribe and attest, and transmit sealed to the place of the authorities of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate ; —The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certifications and the ballots shall so be counted ; —The individual holding the greatest figure of ballots for President, shall be the President, if such figure be a bulk of the whole figure of Voters appointed ; and if no individual have such bulk, so from the individuals holding the highest Numberss non transcending three on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall take instantly, by ballot, the President. But in taking the President, the ballots shall be taken by provinces, the representation from each province holding one ballot ; a quorum for this purpose shall dwell of a member or members from two-thirds of the provinces, and a bulk of all the provinces shall be necessary to a pick. And if the House of Representatives shall non take a President whenever the right of pick shall devolve upon them, before the 4th twenty-four hours of March following followers, so the Vice-President shall move as President, as in the instance of the decease or other constitutional disablement of the President.14 —The individual holding the greatest figure of ballots as Vice-President, shall be the Vice-President, if such figure be a bulk of the whole figure of Voters appointed, and if no individual have a bulk, so from the two highest Numberss on the list, the Senate shall take the Vice-President ; a quorum for the purpose shall dwell of two-thirds of the whole figure of Senators, and a bulk of the whole figure shall be necessary to a pick. But no individual constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the United States. ratified # 12 affects 8

Article XIV ( Amendment 14 - Rights Guaranteed: Privileges and Unsusceptibilities of Citizenship, Due Process, and Equal Protection )

2: Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States harmonizing to their several Numberss, numbering the whole figure of individuals in each State, excepting Indians non taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the pick of voters for President and Vice President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male dwellers of such State, being 21 old ages of age,15 and citizens of the United States, or in any manner abridged, except for engagement in rebellion, or other offense, the footing of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the figure of such male citizens shall bear to the whole figure of male citizens twenty-one old ages of age in such State. affects 2

3: No individual shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or voter of President and Vice President, or keep any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, holding antecedently taken an curse, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State legislative assembly, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to back up the Fundamental law of the United States, shall hold engaged in rebellion or rebellion against the same, or given assistance or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may by a ballot of two-thirds of each House, take such disablement.

Article ( Amendment 20 - Footings of President, Vice President, Members of Congress: Presidential Vacancy )

3: If, at the clip fixed for the beginning of the term of the President, the President elect shall hold died, the Vice President elect shall go President. If a President shall non hold been chosen before the clip fixed for the beginning of his term, or if the President elect shall hold failed to measure up, so the Vice President elect shall move as President until a President shall hold qualified ; and the Congress may by jurisprudence provide for the instance wherein neither a President chosen nor a Vice President elect shall hold qualified, declaring who shall so move as President, or the mode in which 1 who is to move shall be selected, and such individual shall move consequently until a President or Vice President shall hold qualified. affects 9 affects 14

Amendment XXII ( Amendment 22 - Presidential Tenure )

1: No individual shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice, and no individual who has held the office of President, or acted as President, for more than two old ages of a term to which some other individual was elected President shall be elected to the office of the President more than one time. But this article shall non use to any individual keeping the office of President when this article was proposed by the Congress, and shall non forestall any individual who may be keeping the office of President, or moving as President, during the term within which this article becomes operative from keeping the office of President or moving as President during the balance of such term.

Amendment XXIII ( Amendment 23 - Presidential Voters for the District of Columbia )

1: The District representing the place of authorities of the United States shall name in such mode as the Congress may direct: A figure of voters of President and Vice President equal to the whole figure of Senators and Representatives in Congress to which the District would be entitled if it were a province, but in no event more than the least thickly settled province ; they shall be in add-on to those appointed by the provinces, but they shall be considered, for the intents of the election of President and Vice President, to be voters appointed by a province ; and they shall run into in the District and execute such responsibilities as provided by the 12th article of amendment.

Amendment XXV affects 9 ( Amendment 25 - Presidential Vacancy, Disability, and Inability )

Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that no inability exists, he shall restart the powers and responsibilities of his office unless the Vice President and a bulk of either the chief officers of the executive section or of such other organic structure as Congress may by jurisprudence provide, transmit within four yearss to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to dispatch the powers and responsibilities of his office. Thereupon Congress shall make up one's mind the issue, piecing within 48 hours for that intent if non in session. If the Congress, within 21 yearss after reception of the latter written declaration, or, if Congress is non in session, within 21 yearss after Congress is required to piece, determines by two-thirds ballot of both Houses that the President is unable to dispatch the powers and responsibilities of his office, the Vice President shall go on to dispatch the same as Acting President ; otherwise, the President shall restart the powers and responsibilities of his office. ratified # 25

The Fundamental law

In May 1785, a commission of Congress made a study urging an change in the Articles of Confederation, but no action was taken on it, and it was left to the State Legislatures to continue in the affair. In January 1786, the Legislature of Virginia passed a declaration supplying for the assignment of five commissioners, who, or any three of them, should run into such commissioners as might be appointed in the other States of the Union, at a clip and topographic point to be agreed upon, to take into consideration the trade of the United States ; to see how far a unvarying system in their commercial ordinances may be necessary to their common involvement and their lasting harmoniousness ; and to describe to the several States such an act, comparative to this great object, as, when ratified by them, will enable the United States in Congress effectually to supply for the same. The Virginia commissioners, after some correspondence, fixed the first Monday in September as the clip, and the metropolis of Annapolis as the topographic point for the meeting, but merely four other States were represented, viz: Delaware, New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania ; the commissioners appointed by Massachusetts, New Hampshire, North Carolina, and Rhode Island failed to go to. Under the fortunes of so partial a representation, the commissioners present agreed upon a study, ( drawn by Mr. Hamilton, of New York, ) showing their consentaneous strong belief that it might basically be given to progress the involvements of the Union if the States by which they were severally delegated would agree, and utilize their enterprises to secure the concurrency of the other States, in the assignment of commissioners to run into at Philadelphia on the Second Monday of May following, to take into consideration the state of affairs of the United States ; to invent such farther commissariats as should look to them necessary to render the Constitution of the Federal Government adequate to the exigencies of the Union ; and to describe such an act for that intent to the United States in Congress assembled every bit, when agreed to by them and afterwards confirmed by the Legislatures of every State, would effectually supply for the same.

Congress, on the 21st of February, 1787, adopted a declaration in favour of a convention, and the Legislatures of those States which had non already done so ( with the exclusion of Rhode Island ) quickly appointed delegates. On the 25th of May, seven States holding convened, George Washington, of Virginia, was nem con elected President, and the consideration of the proposed constitution was commenced. On the 17th of September, 1787, the Constitution as captive and agreed upon was signed by all the members present, except Mr. Gerry of Massachusetts, and Messrs. Mason and Randolph, of Virginia. The president of the convention transmitted it to Congress, with a declaration saying how the proposed Federal Government should be put in operation, and an explanatory missive. Congress, on the 28th of September, 1787, directed the Constitution so framed, with the declarations and missive refering the same, to “be transmitted to the several Legislatures in order to be submitted to a convention of delegates chosen in each State by the people thereof, in conformance to the resolutenesss of the convention.”

through ( The Bill of Rights )

The first 10 amendments to the Constitution of the United States ( and two others, one of which failed of confirmation and the other which subsequently became the 27th amendment ) were proposed to the legislative assemblies of the several States by the First Congress on September 25, 1789. The first 10 amendments were ratified by the undermentioned States, and the presentments of confirmation by the Governors thereof were in turn communicated by the President to Congress: New Jersey, November 20, 1789 ; Maryland, December 19, 1789 ; North Carolina, December 22, 1789 ; South Carolina, January 19, 1790 ; New Hampshire, January 25, 1790 ; Delaware, January 28, 1790 ; New York, February 24, 1790 ; Pennsylvania, March 10, 1790 ; Rhode Island, June 7, 1790 ; Vermont, November 3, 1791 ; and Virginia, December 15, 1791.

The 11th amendment to the Constitution of the United States was proposed to the legislative assemblies of the several States by the Third Congress, on the 4th of March 1794 ; and was declared in a message from the President to Congress, dated the 8th of January, 1798, to hold been ratified by the legislative assemblies of three-quarterss of the States. The day of the months of confirmation were: NewYork, March 27, 1794 ; Rhode Island, March 31, 1794 ; Connecticut, May 8, 1794 ; New Hampshire, June 16, 1794 ; Massachusetts, June 26, 1794 ; Vermont, between October 9, 1794 and November 9, 1794 ; Virginia, November 18, 1794 ; Georgia, November 29, 1794 ; Kentucky, December 7, 1794 ; Maryland, December 26, 1794 ; Delaware, January 23, 1795 ; North Carolina, February 7, 1795.

The 12th amendment to the Constitution of the United States was proposed to the legislative assemblies of the several States by the Eighth Congress, on the 9th of December, 1803, in stead of the original 3rd paragraph of the first subdivision of the 2nd article ; and was declared in a announcement of the Secretary of State, dated the 25th of September, 1804, to hold been ratified by the legislative assemblies of 13 of the 17 States. The day of the months of confirmation were: North Carolina, December 21, 1803 ; Maryland, December 24, 1803 ; Kentucky, December 27, 1803 ; Ohio, December 30, 1803 ; Pennsylvania, January 5, 1804 ; Vermont, January 30, 1804 ; Virginia, February 3, 1804 ; New York, February 10, 1804 ; New Jersey, February 22, 1804 ; Rhode Island, March 12, 1804 ; South Carolina, May 15, 1804 ; Georgia, May 19, 1804 ; New Hampshire, June 15, 1804.

Article Thirteen

The 13th amendment to the Constitution of the United States was proposed to the legislative assemblies of the several States by the Thirty-eighth Congress, on the 31st twenty-four hours of January, 1865, and was declared, in a announcement of the Secretary of State, dated the 18th of December, 1865, to hold been ratified by the legislative assemblies of 27 of the 36 States. The day of the months of confirmation were: Illinois, February 1, 1865 ; Rhode Island, February 2, 1865 ; Michigan, February 2, 1865 ; Maryland, February 3, 1865 ; New York, February 3, 1865 ; Pennsylvania, February 3, 1865 ; West Virginia, February 3, 1865 ; Missouri, February 6, 1865 ; Maine, February 7, 1865 ; Kansas, February 7, 1865 ; Massachusetts, February 7, 1865 ; Virginia, February 9, 1865 ; Ohio, February 10, 1865 ; Indiana, February 13, 1865 ; Nevada, February 16, 1865 ; Louisiana, February 17, 1865 ; Minnesota, February 23, 1865 ; Wisconsin, February 24, 1865 ; Vermont, March 9, 1865 ; Tennessee, April 7, 1865 ; Arkansas, April 14, 1865 ; Connecticut, May 4, 1865 ; New Hampshire, July 1, 1865 ; South Carolina, November 13, 1865 ; Alabama, December 2, 1865 ; North Carolina, December 4, 1865 ; Georgia, December 6, 1865.

Article Fourteen

The 14th amendment to the Constitution of the United States was proposed to the legislative assemblies of the several States by the Thirty-ninth Congress, on the 13th of June, 1866. It was declared, in a certification of the Secretary of State dated July 28, 1868 to hold been ratified by the legislative assemblies of 28 of the 37 States. The day of the months of confirmation were: Connecticut, June 25, 1866 ; New Hampshire, July 6, 1866 ; Tennessee, July 19, 1866 ; New Jersey, September 11, 1866 ( later the legislative assembly rescinded its confirmation, and on March 24, 1868, readopted its declaration of recission over the Governor 's veto, and on Nov. 12, 1980, expressed support for the amendment ) ; Oregon, September 19, 1866 ( and rescinded its confirmation on October 15, 1868 ) ; Vermont, October 30, 1866 ; Ohio, January 4, 1867 ( and rescinded its confirmation on January 15, 1868 ) ; New York, January 10, 1867 ; Kansas, January 11, 1867 ; Illinois, January 15, 1867 ; West Virginia, January 16, 1867 ; Michigan, January 16, 1867 ; Minnesota, January 16, 1867 ; Maine, January 19, 1867 ; Nevada, January 22, 1867 ; Indiana, January 23, 1867 ; Missouri, January 25, 1867 ; Rhode Island, February 7, 1867 ; Wisconsin, February 7, 1867 ; Pennsylvania, February 12, 1867 ; Massachusetts, March 20, 1867 ; Nebraska, June 15, 1867 ; Iowa, March 16, 1868 ; Arkansas, April 6, 1868 ; Florida, June 9, 1868 ; North Carolina, July 4, 1868 ( after holding rejected it on December 14, 1866 ) ; Louisiana, July 9, 1868 ( after holding rejected it on February 6, 1867 ) ; South Carolina, July 9, 1868 ( after holding rejected it on December 20, 1866 ) .

The amendment was later ratified by Alabama, July 13, 1868 ; Georgia, July 21, 1868 ( after holding rejected it on November 9, 1866 ) ; Virginia, October 8, 1869 ( after holding rejected it on January 9, 1867 ) ; Mississippi, January 17, 1870 ; Texas, February 18, 1870 ( after holding rejected it on October 27, 1866 ) ; Delaware, February 12, 1901 ( after holding rejected it on February 8, 1867 ) ; Maryland, April 4, 1959 ( after holding rejected it on March 23, 1867 ) ; California, May 6, 1959 ; Kentucky, March 18, 1976 ( after holding rejected it on January 8, 1867 ) . amendment 14

Article Fifteen

The 15th amendment to the Constitution of the United States was proposed to the legislative assemblies of the several States by the Fortieth Congress, on the 26th of February, 1869, and was declared, in a announcement of the Secretary of State, dated March 30, 1870, to hold been ratified by the legislative assemblies of 29 of the 37 States. The day of the months of confirmation were: Nevada, March 1, 1869 ; West Virginia, March 3, 1869 ; Illinois, March 5, 1869 ; Louisiana, March 5, 1869 ; North Carolina, March 5, 1869 ; Michigan, March 8, 1869 ; Wisconsin, March 9, 1869 ; Maine, March 11, 1869 ; Massachusetts, March 12, 1869 ; Arkansas, March 15, 1869 ; South Carolina, March 15, 1869 ; Pennsylvania, March 25, 1869 ; New York, April 14, 1869 ( and the legislative assembly of the same State passed a declaration January 5, 1870, to retreat its consent to it, which action it rescinded on March 30, 1970 ) ; Indiana, May 14, 1869 ; Connecticut, May 19, 1869 ; Florida, June 14, 1869 ; New Hampshire, July 1, 1869 ; Virginia, October 8, 1869 ; Vermont, October 20, 1869 ; Missouri, January 7, 1870 ; Minnesota, January 13, 1870 ; Mississippi, January 17, 1870 ; Rhode Island, January 18, 1870 ; Kansas, January 19, 1870 ; Ohio, January 27, 1870 ( after holding rejected it on April 30, 1869 ) ; Georgia, February 2, 1870 ; Iowa, February 3, 1870.

Article Sixteen

The 16th amendment to the Constitution of the United States was proposed to the legislative assemblies of the several States by the Sixty-first Congress on the 12th of July, 1909, and was declared, in a announcement of the Secretary of State, dated the 25th of February, 1913, to hold been ratified by 36 of the 48 States. The day of the months of confirmation were: Alabama, August 10, 1909 ; Kentucky, February 8, 1910 ; South Carolina, February 19, 1910 ; Illinois, March 1, 1910 ; Mississippi, March 7, 1910 ; Oklahoma, March 10, 1910 ; Maryland, April 8, 1910 ; Georgia, August 3, 1910 ; Texas, August 16, 1910 ; Ohio, January 19, 1911 ; Idaho, January 20, 1911 ; Oregon, January 23, 1911 ; Washington, January 26, 1911 ; Montana, January 30, 1911 ; Indiana, January 30, 1911 ; California, January 31, 1911 ; Nevada, January 31, 1911 ; South Dakota, February 3, 1911 ; Nebraska, February 9, 1911 ; North Carolina, February 11, 1911 ; Colorado, February 15, 1911 ; North Dakota, February 17, 1911 ; Kansas, February 18, 1911 ; Michigan, February 23, 1911 ; Iowa, February 24, 1911 ; Missouri, March 16, 1911 ; Maine, March 31, 1911 ; Tennessee, April 7, 1911 ; Arkansas, April 22, 1911 ( after holding rejected it earlier ) ; Wisconsin, May 26, 1911 ; New York, July 12, 1911 ; Arizona, April 6, 1912 ; Minnesota, June 11, 1912 ; Louisiana, June 28, 1912 ; West Virginia, January 31, 1913 ; New Mexico, February 3, 1913.

The 17th amendment to the Constitution of the United States was proposed to the legislative assemblies of the several States by the Sixty-second Congress on the 13th of May, 1912, and was declared, in a announcement of the Secretary of State, dated the 31st of May, 1913, to hold been ratified by the legislative assemblies of 36 of the 48 States. The day of the months of confirmation were: Massachusetts, May 22, 1912 ; Arizona, June 3, 1912 ; Minnesota, June 10, 1912 ; New York, January 15, 1913 ; Kansas, January 17, 1913 ; Oregon, January 23, 1913 ; North Carolina, January 25, 1913 ; California, January 28, 1913 ; Michigan, January 28, 1913 ; Iowa, January 30, 1913 ; Montana, January 30, 1913 ; Idaho, January 31, 1913 ; West Virginia, February 4, 1913 ; Colorado, February 5, 1913 ; Nevada, February 6, 1913 ; Texas, February 7, 1913 ; Washington, February 7, 1913 ; Wyoming, February 8, 1913 ; Arkansas, February 11, 1913 ; Maine, February 11, 1913 ; Illinois, February 13, 1913 ; North Dakota, February 14, 1913 ; Wisconsin, February 18, 1913 ; Indiana, February 19, 1913 ; New Hampshire, February 19, 1913 ; Vermont, February 19, 1913 ; South Dakota, February 19, 1913 ; Oklahoma, February 24, 1913 ; Ohio, February 25, 1913 ; Missouri, March 7, 1913 ; New Mexico, March 13, 1913 ; Nebraska, March 14, 1913 ; New Jersey, March 17, 1913 ; Tennessee, April 1, 1913 ; Pennsylvania, April 2, 1913 ; Connecticut, April 8, 1913.

Article 16

The 18th amendment to the Constitution of the United States was proposed to the legislative assemblies of the several States by the Sixty-fifth Congress, on the 18th of December, 1917, and was declared, in a announcement of the Secretary of State, dated the 29th of January, 1919, to hold been ratified by the legislative assemblies of 36 of the 48 States. The day of the months of confirmation were: Mississippi, January 8, 1918 ; Virginia, January 11, 1918 ; Kentucky, January 14, 1918 ; North Dakota, January 25, 1918 ; South Carolina, January 29, 1918 ; Maryland, February 13, 1918 ; Montana, February 19, 1918 ; Texas, March 4, 1918 ; Delaware, March 18, 1918 ; South Dakota, March 20, 1918 ; Massachusetts, April 2, 1918 ; Arizona, May 24, 1918 ; Georgia, June 26, 1918 ; Louisiana, August 3, 1918 ; Florida, December 3, 1918 ; Michigan, January 2, 1919 ; Ohio, January 7, 1919 ; Oklahoma, January 7, 1919 ; Idaho, January 8, 1919 ; Maine, January 8, 1919 ; West Virginia, January 9, 1919 ; California, January 13, 1919 ; Tennessee, January 13, 1919 ; Washington, January 13, 1919 ; Arkansas, January 14, 1919 ; Kansas, January 14, 1919 ; Alabama, January 15, 1919 ; Colorado, January 15, 1919 ; Iowa, January 15, 1919 ; New Hampshire, January 15, 1919 ; Oregon, January 15, 1919 ; Nebraska, January 16, 1919 ; North Carolina, January 16, 1919 ; Utah, January 16, 1919 ; Missouri, January 16, 1919 ; Wyoming, January 16, 1919.

Women 's Suffrage Rights Article

The 19th amendment to the Constitution of the United States was proposed to the legislative assemblies of the several States by the Sixty-sixth Congress, on the 4th of June, 1919, and was declared, in a announcement of the Secretary of State, dated the 26th of August, 1920, to hold been ratified by the legislative assemblies of 36 of the 48 States. The day of the months of confirmation were: Illinois, June 10, 1919 ( and that State readopted its declaration of confirmation June 17, 1919 ) ; Michigan, June 10, 1919 ; Wisconsin, June 10, 1919 ; Kansas, June 16, 1919 ; New York, June 16, 1919 ; Ohio, June 16, 1919 ; Pennsylvania, June 24, 1919 ; Massachusetts, June 25, 1919 ; Texas, June 28, 1919 ; Iowa, July 2, 1919 ; Missouri, July 3, 1919 ; Arkansas, July 28, 1919 ; Montana, August 2, 1919 ; Nebraska, August 2, 1919 ; Minnesota, September 8, 1919 ; New Hampshire, September 10, 1919 ; Utah, October 2, 1919 ; California, November 1, 1919 ; Maine, November 5, 1919 ; North Dakota, December 1, 1919 ; South Dakota, December 4, 1919 ; Colorado, December 15, 1919 ; Kentucky, January 6, 1920 ; Rhode Island, January 6, 1920 ; Oregon, January 13, 1920 ; Indiana, January 16, 1920 ; Wyoming, January 27, 1920 ; Nevada, February 7, 1920 ; New Jersey, February 9, 1920 ; Idaho, February 11, 1920 ; Arizona, February 12, 1920 ; New Mexico, February 21, 1920 ; Oklahoma, February 28, 1920 ; West Virginia, March 10, 1920 ; Washington, March 22, 1920 ; Tennessee, August 18, 1920.

The amendment was later ratified by Connecticut on September 14, 1920 ( and that State reaffirmed on September 21, 1920 ) ; Vermont, February 8, 1921 ; Delaware, March 6, 1923 ( after holding rejected it on June 2, 1920 ) ; Maryland, March 29, 1941 ( after holding rejected it on February 24, 1920, confirmation certified on February 25, 1958 ) ; Virginia, February 21, 1952 ( after holding rejected it on February 12, 1920 ) ; Alabama, September 8, 1953 ( after holding rejected it on September 22, 1919 ) ; Florida, May 13, 1969 ; South Carolina, July 1, 1969 ( after holding rejected it on January 28, 1920, confirmation certified on August 22, 1973 ) ; Georgia, February 20, 1970 ( after holding rejected it on July 24, 1919 ) ; Louisiana, June 11, 1970 ( after holding rejected it on July 1, 1920 ) ; North Carolina, May 6, 1971 ; Mississippi, March 22, 1984 ( after holding rejected it on March 29, 1920 ) . amendment 19

Article

The 20th amendment to the Constitution was proposed to the legislative assemblies of the several provinces by the Seventy-Second Congress, on the 2d twenty-four hours of March, 1932, and was declared, in a announcement by the Secretary of State, dated on the 6th twenty-four hours of February, 1933, to hold been ratified by the legislative assemblies of 36 of the 48 States. The day of the months of confirmation were: Virginia, March 4, 1932 ; New York, March 11, 1932 ; Mississippi, March 16, 1932 ; Arkansas, March 17, 1932 ; Kentucky, March 17, 1932 ; New Jersey, March 21, 1932 ; South Carolina, March 25, 1932 ; Michigan, March 31, 1932 ; Maine, April 1, 1932 ; Rhode Island, April 14, 1932 ; Illinois, April 21, 1932 ; Louisiana, June 22, 1932 ; West Virginia, July 30, 1932 ; Pennsylvania, August 11, 1932 ; Indiana, August 15, 1932 ; Texas, September 7, 1932 ; Alabama, September 13, 1932 ; California, January 4, 1933 ; North Carolina, January 5, 1933 ; North Dakota, January 9, 1933 ; Minnesota, January 12, 1933 ; Arizona, January 13, 1933 ; Montana, January 13, 1933 ; Nebraska, January 13, 1933 ; Oklahoma, January 13, 1933 ; Kansas, January 16, 1933 ; Oregon, January 16, 1933 ; Delaware, January 19, 1933 ; Washington, January 19, 1933 ; Wyoming, January 19, 1933 ; Iowa, January 20, 1933 ; South Dakota, January 20, 1933 ; Tennessee, January 20, 1933 ; Idaho, January 21, 1933 ; New Mexico, January 21, 1933 ; Georgia, January 23, 1933 ; Missouri, January 23, 1933 ; Ohio, January 23, 1933 ; Utah, January 23, 1933.

Article

The 21st amendment to the Constitution was proposed to the several provinces by the Seventy-Second Congress, on the twentieth twenty-four hours of February, 1933, and was declared, in a announcement by the Secretary of State, dated on the fifth twenty-four hours of December, 1933, to hold been ratified by 36 of the 48 States. The day of the months of confirmation were: Michigan, April 10, 1933 ; Wisconsin, April 25, 1933 ; Rhode Island, May 8, 1933 ; Wyoming, May 25, 1933 ; New Jersey, June 1, 1933 ; Delaware, June 24, 1933 ; Indiana, June 26, 1933 ; Massachusetts, June 26, 1933 ; New York, June 27, 1933 ; Illinois, July 10, 1933 ; Iowa, July amendment 21

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