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Professional research paper about mahogany

Abstraction

Drug opposition to human infective diseases caused by pathogens lead to premature deceases through out the universe. Plants are beginnings for broad assortment of drugs used for handling assorted diseases. Systematic showing of medicative workss for the hunt of new antimicrobic drug campaigners that can suppress the growing of pathogens or kill with no toxicity to host is being continued by many research labs. Here we review the phytochemical probes and biological activities of Meliaceae. The mahogany ( Meliaceae ) is household of lumber trees with rich beginning for limonoids. So far, amongst the different members of Meliaceae, Azadirachta indica and Melia dubia have been identified as the possible works systems possessing a huge array of biologically active compounds which are chemically diverse and structurally complex. Despite biological activities on different taxa of Meliaceae have been carried out, the information of antibacterial and fungicidal activity is a meager with exclusion to Azadirachta indica. Together we provide new penetrations of Meliaceae members showing as a possible beginning as antimicrobic agents utilizing in vitro surveies.

Introduction

World broad, infective disease is the figure one cause of decease accounting for about one-half of all deceases in tropical states. Plants constitute one of the major natural stuffs of drugs for handling assorted human diseases. The modern society has been interested in drugs of natural beginning due to their harmonious nature with our biological system ( Amalraj, 1983 ) . It is reported that 41 % prescriptions in USA and 50 % in Europe contain components from natural merchandises which shows that the tendency of utilizing natural merchandises is acquiring increased. Scientific research on medicative workss relies on designation of the active rules in the workss ; scientific scrutiny of the redresss which lead to standardisation and quality control of merchandises to guarantee their safety. It is after such ratings that they can be approved for usage in the primary wellness attention. Such research activities could besides take to the development of new drugs as in the yesteryear ( Farnsworth et al. , 1985 ; Farnsworth, 1988 ) . Phytochemical trials have been performed in about 5000 species and about 1100 species are extensively exploited in Ayurvedic, Unani and Allopathic medical specialties. In fact active works infusions testing plans continue to stop ever with new drug finds.

In order to happen new beginnings of works drugs, figure of workss has been screened for broad scope of biological activity in assorted research establishments. Plant based disinfectants represent a huge untapped beginning for medical specialties by possessing tremendous curative potency. They are effectual in the intervention of infective diseases while at the same time extenuating many of the side effects that are frequently associated with man-made disinfectants. Although, a figure of antibiotics are widely used in medical specialty, the hunt for antimicrobic substances from workss will go on as better and safer drugs to battle bacterial and fungous infections are still needed, because of their biodegradable nature and being comparatively safer for human existences and non-target beings in the environment. Extensive study of the vegetation has been undertaken to seek for possible works infusions, which could be used in the direction of agribusiness and family plagues. In order to analyze possible applications of infusions or compounds derived from infusions, methods to test for biological activities and separation techniques to insulate the active rules have to be established. About 80 % of the universe 's population relies on traditional medical specialties for primary wellness attention, most of which involve the usage of works infusions ( Sandhya et al. , 2006 ) . Almost 95 % of the prescriptions are works based in the traditional systems of Unani, Ayurveda, Homoeopathy and Siddha ( Satyavati et al. , 1987 ) .

The mahogany ( Meliaceae ) household comprises more than 50 genera with about 1400 species ( Nakatani et al. , 2001 ) is distributed in tropical and semitropical parts. The household is represented by 17 genera and 72 species of which 12 species and two assortments endemic in India. Approximately 18 % are endemic to peninsular India. From 19th century up to the present clip, the mahoganies have been the most of import species for the development of the forest industry in Asia, tropical Africa and Latin America. Many species of this household were used in traditional medical specialty for intervention of assorted diseases and besides in pest control. Here we review the phytochemical probes and biological activities of Meliaceae. Together we provide penetrations of Meliaceae members showing as a possible beginning as antimicrobic agents utilizing in vitro surveies. Till to day of the month there is no reappraisal published on the phytochemical components and their antimicrobic belongingss of Meliaceae. Hence our reappraisal aims to coherently unite consequences obtained from assorted published probes on this of import household. Here we address the of import phytochemical components of Meliaceae and workss that have been investigated for their antimicrobic potency other than A. indica from Meliaceae.

Phytochemical surveies of Meliaceae

Assorted categories of chemical components were isolated from different parts of meliaceous members. Chemically, the Meliaceae is characterized by synthesis of modified triterpenes known as limonoids. Over 300 limonoids have been isolated to day of the month and they are more diverse and abundant in this peculiar household than in any other household. Several triterpenoidal derived functions were besides isolated from different genera of Meliaceae. Amongst different members of Meliaceae, Azadirachta indica had been extensively studied for its chemicals. Limonoids are secondary metabolites produced in workss found in the order Rutales. Over 300 limonoids have been isolated to day of the month ( Taylor, 1986 ; Champagne et al. , 1992 ) and their production is confined to workss in the order Rutales. In peculiar, they are characteristic members of the household Meliaceae where they are diverse and abundant ( Taylor, 1981 ; Connolly, 1983 ) than in any other household and less often in the households Rutaceae and Cneoraceae.

Limonoids are described as modified triterpenes, holding a 4,4,8-trimethyl-17-furanyl steroid skeleton. The term limonoids was derived from limonin, the first tetranortriterpenoid obtained from citrous fruit acrimonious rules ( Roy and Saraf, 2006 ) . The consequence of ring construction and chemical oxidization province parametric quantities is a focal point of why limonoids exhibit activity against insect herbivores. Agreements of subgroups and pealing constructions within this basic edifice block provide a host of features that have generated involvement in this works merchandise. These features include insecticidal, insect growing ordinance, insect antifeedant, and medicative effects to animate beings and worlds such as antibacterial, viral, and fungicidal belongingss. Of recent great involvement, limonoid 's possible anticarcinogenic belongingss are being explored. Of particular involvement to states in tropical locations is the antimalarial activity attributed to tropical Meliaceae infusions and gendunin ( 1 ) derived functions. Previous probes from assorted works parts of Meliaceae led to the isolation of tetranortriterpenoids with a modified furan pealing such as febrifugin ( 2 ) ( Rao et al. , 1978 ) methyl angolensate ( 3 ) , luteolin-7-O-glucoside ( 4 ) , deoxyandirobin ( 5 ) from the bark ( Ambaye et al. , 1971 ; Adesida and Taylor, 1972 ; Purushothaman and Chandrasekharan, 1974 ; Purushothaman et al. , 1977 ) .Figure optionsDownload life-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide

Abstraction

The mahoganies are non native to Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands but were introduced as lumber and shadiness trees. The first known plantings of small-leaf mahogany on St. Croix, Virgin Islands, were in about 1790. Big-leaf mahogany was seemingly introduced in Puerto Rico in 1904. The Pacific seashore mahogany, geting much later, has non performed good and grows merely in research secret plans. The loanblend between big-leaf and small-leaf mahogany was foremost noted in 1935 in Puerto Rico. Regular nursery production of mahoganies began in the 1920s in Puerto Rico, and seting for re-afforestation and timber production became intense between 1936 and 1942, when about 5 million mahogany seedlings were planted. Unfortunately, merely about 1200 hour angle of plantations remain today. A few 10s of 1000s of seedlings per twelvemonth are now being planted, largely as ornamentals. The Forest Service’s International Institute of Tropical Forestry ( the Institute ) has been a chief participant in mahogany research from the 1930s onward. Information gained through surveies on seed handling, nursery production, seting techniques, stand constitution, agroforestry applications, cuttings, features of intercrossed mahogany, species site adaptability, mahogany shoot bore bit direction, wood belongingss, growing and output, alimentary and C rhythms, harm to paving, hurricane harm and recovery, and molecular genetic sciences are briefly summarized. Surveies sponsored by the Institute continue in birthplace trials, molecular genetic sciences, and reproduction jobs.

Home

The premise that underlies our research plan in Brazil is that better ecological information about mahogany can better forest direction patterns. In our position, bettering forest direction patterns offers the best possibility of conserving natural populations for their ain interests, every bit good as for their grasp and usage by future coevalss of us. We hope to excite visitants to see tropical lumber species as non so really different from the trees populating woods near their ain communities. The New World mahoganies produce the most ‘branded’ luxury lumber in the universe. They inhabit lowland tropical woods from Mexico to Bolivia, and are progressively rare in the natural state after 500 old ages of commercial development. Yet in wide outline their ecology – their life history schemes for lasting and reproducing within intensely competitory tropical wood environments – resembles that of many trees around the universe, including, possibly, some turning near you. This means that anyone interested can understand the issues and challenges associated with managing and conserving natural mahogany populations that survive in the wild today.

The Future of Mahogany

The really name mahogany is synonymous with luxury and edification. This beautiful wood has been traded internationally since the Spanish discovered natural woods around 1500 during colonisation of Mexico and Central America. Mahogany is more than a pretty board – its strength, light weight, opposition to decompose, and structural stableness made it an ideal lumber for ocean-going vass every bit good as furniture. Mahogany besides occupies an of import place in the ecosystem in so far as it is a big tree that emerges above the forest canopy. Many other species depend on it for home ground and endurance.

Mahogany

While the three Swietenia species are classified officially as `` echt mahogany '' , other Meliaceae species with lumber utilizations are classified as `` true mahogany. '' ( Merely the Swietenia species can be called `` echt mahogany. '' ) Some may or may non hold the word mahogany in their trade or common name. Some of these true mahoganies include the African genera Khaya and Entandrophragma ; New Zealand mahogany or kohekohe ( Dysoxylum spectabile ) ; Chinese mahogany, Toona sinensis ; Indonesian mahogany, Toona sureni ; Indian mahogany, Toona Ciliata ; Chinaberry, Melia chinaberry ; Pink Mahogany ( or Bosse ) , Guarea ; Chittagong ( besides known as Indian Mahogany ) , Chukrasia velutina ; and Crabwood Carapa guianensis. Some members of the genus Shorea ( Meranti, Balau, or Lauan ) of the household Dipterocarpaceae are besides sometimes sold as Philippine mahogany, although the name is more decently applied to another species of Toona, Toona calantas.

Mahogany is a commercially of import timbers prized for its beauty, lastingness, and colour, and used for paneling and to do furniture, boats, musical instruments and other points. The taking importer of mahogany is the United States, followed by Britain ; while the largest exporter today is Peru, which surpassed Brazil after that state banned mahogany exports in 2001. It is estimated that some 80 or 90 per centum of Peruvian mahogany exported to the United States is illicitly harvested, with the economic cost of illegal logging in Peru placed cautiously at $ 40–70 million USD yearly. It was estimated that in 2000, some 57,000 mahogany trees were harvested to provide the U.S. furniture trade entirely.

Distribution

The natural distribution of these species within the Americas is geographically distinguishable. S. mahagoni grows on the West Indian islands as far north as the Bahamas, the Florida Keys and parts of Florida ; S. humilis grows in the dry parts of the Pacific seashore of Central America from south-western Mexico to Costa Rica ; S. macrophylla grows in Central America from Yucatan due souths and into South America, widening every bit far as Peru, Bolivia and utmost western Brazil. In the twentieth century assorted phytologists attempted to farther define S. macrophylla in South America as a new species, such as S. candollei Pittier and S. tessmannii Harms. , but many governments consider these specious. Harmonizing to Record and Hess, all of the mahogany of Continental North and South America can be considered as one botanical species, Swietenia macrophylla King.

History

The name mahogany was ab initio associated merely with those islands in the West Indies under British control ( Gallic settlers used the term acajou, while in the Spanish districts it was called caoba ) . The beginning of the name is unsure, but it could be a corruptness of 'm'oganwo ' , the name used by the Yoruba and Ibo people of West Africa to depict trees of the genus Khaya, which is closely related to Swietenia. When transported to Jamaica as slaves, they gave the same name to the similar trees they saw at that place. Though this reading has been disputed, no 1 has suggested a more plausible beginning. The autochthonal Arawak name for the tree is non known. In 1671 the word mahogany appeared in print for the first clip, in John Ogilby 's America. Among phytologists and naturalists, nevertheless, the tree was considered a type of cedar, and in 1759 was classified by Carl Linnaeus ( 1707–1778 ) as Cedrela mahagoni. The undermentioned twelvemonth it was assigned to a new genus by Nicholas Joseph Jacquin ( 1727–1817 ) , and named Swietenia mahagoni.

Until the nineteenth century all of the mahogany was regarded as one species, although varying in quality and character harmonizing to dirt and clime. In 1836 the German phytologist Joseph Gerhard Zuccarini ( 1797–1848 ) identified a 2nd species while working on specimens collected on the Pacific seashore of Mexico, and named it Swietenia humilis. In 1886 a 3rd species, Swietenia macrophylla, was named by Sir George King ( 1840–1909 ) after analyzing specimens of Honduras mahogany planted in the Botanic Gardens in Calcutta, India. Today, all species of Swietenia grown in their native locations are listed by CITES, and are hence protected. Both Swietenia mahagoni, and Swietenia macrophylla were introduced into several Asiatic states at the clip of the limitations imposed on American mahogany in the late 1990s and both are now successfully grown and harvested in plantations in those states. The universe 's supply of echt mahogany today comes from these Asiatic plantations, notably from India, Bangladesh, Indonesia and from Fiji, in Oceania.

eighteenth century

While the trade in mahogany from the Spanish and Gallic districts in America remained moribund for most of the eighteenth century, this was non true for those islands under British control. In 1721 the British Parliament removed all import responsibilities from lumber imported into Britain from British ownerships in the Americas. This instantly stimulated the trade in West Indian lumbers including, most significantly, mahogany. Importings of mahogany into England ( and excepting those to Scotland, which were recorded individually ) reached 525 dozenss per annum by 1740, 3,688 dozenss by 1750, and more than 30,000 dozenss in 1788, the peak twelvemonth of the eighteenth century trade.

mahoganies

1: the wood of any of assorted chiefly tropical trees ( household Meliaceae, the mahogany household ) : a ( 1 ) : the lasting yellowish-brown to red-brown normally reasonably difficult and heavy wood of a West Indian tree ( Swietenia mahagoni ) that is widely used for cabinetwork and all right finish work ( 2 ) : a wood similar to mahogany from a congenerous tropical American tree ( particularly S. macrophylla ) B ( 1 ) : the instead difficult heavy normally odourless wood of any of several African trees ( genus Khaya ) ( 2 ) : the instead lightweight cedar-scented wood of any of several African trees ( genus Entandrophragma ) that varies in colour from pinkish to deep ruddy brown

User Reviews

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