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Professional research paper about onions


The research onion was developed by Saunders et Al. ( 2007 ) . It illustrates the phases that must be covered when developing a research strategy.When viewed from the outside, each bed of the onion describes a more elaborate phase of the research procedure ( Saunders et al. , 2007 ) . The research onion provides an effectual patterned advance through which a research methodological analysis can be designed. Its usefulness prevarications in its adaptability for about any type of research methodological analysis and can be used in a assortment of contexts ( Bryman, 2012 ) . This essay will analyze and depict the different phases of the research onion, and explicate the constructs at each phase.

1.1: Understanding the Research Procedure

The research onion was developed by Saunders et Al. ( 2007 ) in order to depict the phases through which the research worker must go through when explicating an effectual methodological analysis. First, the research doctrine requires definition. This creates the starting point for the appropriate research attack, which is adopted in the 2nd measure. In the 3rd measure, the research scheme is adopted, and the 4th bed identifies the clip skyline. The 5th measure represents the phase at which the information aggregation methodological analysis is identified. The benefits of the research onion are therefore that it creates a series of phases under which the different methods of informations aggregation can be understood, and illustrates the stairss by which a methodological survey can be described.

1.2: Research Doctrine

A research doctrine refers to the set of beliefs refering the nature of the world being investigated ( Bryman, 2012 ) . It is the underlying definition of the nature of cognition. The premises created by a research doctrine provide the justification for how the research will be undertaken ( Flick, 2011 ) . Research doctrines can differ on the ends of research and on the best manner that might be used to accomplish these ends ( Goddard & Melville, 2004 ) . These are non needfully at odds with each other, but the pick of research doctrine is defined by the type of cognition being investigated in the research undertaking ( May, 2011 ) . Therefore, understanding the research doctrine being used can assist explicate the premises inherent in the research procedure and how this fits the methodological analysis being used.

Two chief ontological models can inform the research procedure: positivism and constructionism ( Monette et al. 2005 ) . These models might be described otherwise ( such as empiricist philosophy and interpretivism ) but the implicit in premises are loosely similar ( Bryman, 2012 ) . Positivism assumes that world exists independently of the thing being studied. In pattern this means that the significance of phenomena is consistent between topics ( Newman, 1998 ) . Conversely, constructionism suggests that the built-in significance of societal phenomena is created by each perceiver or group ( Östlundet al. , 2011 ) . In this doctrine, one can ne'er assume that what is observed is interpreted in the same manner between participants and the cardinal attack is to analyze differences and niceties in the respondents’ apprehension.

1.3: Research Approachs

The deductive attack develops the hypothesis or hypotheses upon a preexistent theory and so formulates the research attack to prove it ( Silverman, 2013 ) . This attack is best suited to contexts where the research undertaking is concerned with analyzing whether the ascertained phenomena fit with outlook based upon old research ( Wiles et al. , 2011 ) . The deductive attack therefore might be considered peculiarly suited to the rationalist attack, which permits the preparation of hypotheses and the statistical testing of expected consequences to an recognized degree of chance ( Snieder & Larner, 2009 ) . However, a deductive attack may besides be used with qualitative research techniques, though in such instances the outlooks formed by preexistent research would be formulated otherwise than through hypothesis testing ( Saunders et al. , 2007 ) . The deductive attack is characterised as the development from general to peculiar: the general theory and cognition base is first established and the specific cognition gained from the research procedure is so tested against it ( Kothari, 2004 ) .

The inductive attack is characterised as a move from the particular to the general ( Bryman & Bell, 2011 ) . In this attack, the observations are the get downing point for the research worker, and forms are looked for in the information ( Beiske, 2007 ) . In this attack, there is no model that ab initio informs the informations aggregation and the research focal point can therefore be formed after the information has been collected ( Flick, 2011 ) . Although this may be seen as the point at which new theories are generated, it is besides true that as the information is analysed that it may be found to suit into an bing theory ( Bryman & Bell, 2011 ) .

As the name suggests, this attack is concerned with quantitative informations ( Flick, 2011 ) . It holds a figure of recognized statistical criterions for the cogency of the attack, such as the figure of respondents that are required to set up a statistically important consequence ( Goddard & Melville, 2004 ) . Although this research attack is informed by a rationalist doctrine, it can be used to look into a broad scope of societal phenomena, including feelings and subjective point of views. The quantitative attack can be most efficaciously used for state of affairss where there are a big figure of respondents available, where the informations can be efficaciously measured utilizing quantitative techniques, and where statistical methods of analysis can be used ( May, 2011 ) .

The qualitative attack is drawn from the constructivist paradigm ( Bryman & Allen, 2011 ) . This attack requires the research worker to avoid enforcing their ain perceptual experience of the significance of societal phenomena upon the respondent ( Banister et al. , 2011 ) . The purpose is to look into how the respondent interprets their ain world ( Bryman & Allen, 2011 ) . This presents the challenge of making a methodological analysis that is framed by the respondent instead than by the research worker. An effectual agencies by which to make this is through interviews, or texts, where the response to a inquiry can be unfastened ( Feilzer, 2010 ) . Furthermore, the research worker can develop the inquiries throughout the procedure in order to guarantee that the respondent farther expands upon the information provided. Qualitative research is normally used for analyzing the significance of societal phenomena, instead than seeking a causative relationship between established variables ( Feilzer, 2010 ) .

1.4: Research Scheme

Action research is characterised as a practical attack to a specific research job within a community of pattern ( Bryman, 2012 ) . It involves analyzing pattern to set up that it corresponds to the best attack. It tends to affect brooding pattern, which is a systematic procedure by which the professional pattern and experience of the practicians can be assessed. This signifier of research is common in professions such as instruction or nursing, where the practician can measure ways in which they can better their professional attack and apprehension ( Wiles et al. , 2011 ) .

1.5: Choices

The picks outlined in the research onion include the glandular fever method, the assorted method, and the multi-method ( Saunders et al. , 2007 ) . As the names of these attacks suggest, the mono-method involves utilizing one research attack for the survey. The mixed-methods required the usage of two or more methods of research, and normally refer to the usage of both a qualitative and a quantitative methodological analysis. In the multi-method, a wider choice of methods is used ( Bryman, 2012 ) . The chief difference between the assorted and the multi-method is that the mixed-method involves a combined methodological analysis that creates a individual dataset ( Flick, 2011 ) . The multi-method attack is where the research is divided into separate sections, with each bring forthing a specific dataset ; each is so analysed utilizing techniques derived from quantitative or qualitative methodological analysiss ( Feilzer, 2010 ) .

1.6: Time Horizons

The Time Horizon is the clip model within which the undertaking is intended for completion ( Saunders et al. , 2007 ) . Two types of clip skylines are specified within the research onion: the cross sectional and the longitudinal ( Bryman, 2012 ) . The cross sectional clip skyline is one already established, whereby the informations must be collected. This is dubbed the ‘snapshot’ clip aggregation, where the information is collected at a certain point ( Flick, 2011 ) . This is used when the probe is concerned with the survey of a peculiar phenomenon at a specific clip. A longitudinal clip skyline for informations aggregation refers to the aggregation of informations repeatedly over an drawn-out period, and is used where an of import factor for the research is analyzing alteration over clip ( Goddard & Melville, 2004 ) . This has the benefit of being used to analyze alteration and development. Furthermore, it allows the constitution of some control over the variables being studied. The clip skyline selected is non dependent on a specific research attack or methodological analysis ( Saunders et al. , 2007 ) .

1.7: Datas Collection and Analysis

Primary informations is that which is derived from first-hand beginnings. This can be historical first-hand beginnings, or the informations derived from the respondents in study or interview informations ( Bryman, 2012 ) . However, it is non needfully informations that has been produced by the research being undertaken. For illustration, informations derived from statistical aggregations such as the nose count can represent primary informations. Likewise, information that is derived from other research workers may besides be used as primary informations, or it may be represented by a text being analysed ( Flick, 2011 ) . The primary informations is hence best understood as the information that is being analysed as itself, instead than through the prism of another’s analysis.

Secondary informations is that which is derived from the work or sentiments of other research workers ( Newman, 1998 ) . For illustration, the decisions of a research article can represent secondary informations because it is information that has already been processed by another. Likewise, analyses conducted on statistical studies can represent secondary informations ( Kothari, 2004 ) . However, there is an extent to which the information is defined by its usage, instead than its built-in nature ( Flick, 2011 ) . Newspapers may turn out both a primary and secondary beginning for informations, depending on whether the newsman was really present. For a survey of societal attitudes in the Eighteenth Century, or for a survey of the causes of fright of offense in present twenty-four hours UK, newspapers may represent primary informations. Therefore, the most effectual differentiation of the two types of information is possibly established by the usage to which it is put in a survey, instead than to an built-in feature of the informations itself.

1.8: Research Design

The descriptive research design relates to reflecting the experiences of respondents. It is therefore related closely to ethnographic surveies, but a quantitative model is besides an appropriate model ; for illustration, the demographic features of a population subgroup can be reported ( Bryman, 2012 ) . An explanatory research design is focused on how to efficaciously explicate the features of a population or a societal phenomenon ( Saunders et al. , 2007 ) . This may be seen as effectual where utilizing a quantitative model, where the influence of one variable on another can be established ( Kothari, 2004 ) . The exploratory survey is an geographic expedition of an issue that takes topographic point before adequate is known to carry on a formulaic research undertaking. It is normally used in order to inform farther research in the capable country ( Neuman, 2003 ) .

1.9: Samples

The sample size represents the figure of respondents selected from the overall population that are used in the research ( Newman, 1998 ) . In quantitative research, the size of the sample is indispensable in finding the dependability of the consequences of a survey. Sample sizes of much less than 30 will be given to bring forth consequences where single respondents may skew the consequences. In such instances, the larger the sample size the more dependable will be the consequences ( Flick, 2011 ) . In qualitative research, the size of the sample is less of import, and the construct of representativeness is non as strong a guideline for the cogency of the research.

Sampling techniques are the ways in which an appropriate sample size is selected for the wider survey ( Bryman, 2012 ) . There are a figure of recognized techniques that can be used. A random sample represents persons within a larger population who are chosen at random. However, this can ensue in random distribution, which can intend important skewing ensuing from the random nature of sample choice ( Neuman, 2003 ) . For illustration, a random sample may ensue in more males than females being represented in a sample, or an unequal distribution across ages. A graded sample may so be used to guarantee that the representatives of the population in the sample reflect the important features of the wider population, such as doing certain that the demographic features of age and gender are reflected in the sample ( Newman, 1998 ) . A convenience sample is where the sample is taken from an bing model, such as an educational establishment, given that the ways in which respondents may be recruited is comparatively straightforward. This may be appropriate if a survey is concerned with students’ positions, and it proved convenient to try merely one educational establishment ; it may be considered improbable that important fluctuation in students’ features will happen between establishments or that those features will hold a important consequence on the consequences of a survey.

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In-Depth Nutritional Profile

Onions, chopped, cooked ( Note: `` -- '' indicates informations unavailable ) 1.00 cup ( 210.00 g ) GI: low BASIC MACRONUTRIENTS AND CALORIES nutrientamountDRI/DV ( % ) Protein2.86 g6 Carbohydrates21.31 g9 Fat - total0.40 g -- Dietary Fiber2.94 g12 Calories92.405 MACRONUTRIENT AND CALORIE DETAIL nutrientamountDRI/DV ( % ) Carbohydrate: Starch -- g Entire Sugars9.93 g Monosaccharides7.62 g Fructose3.02 g Glucose4.60 g Galactose0.00 g Disaccharides2.31 g Lactose0.00 g Maltose0.00 g Sucrose2.31 g Soluble Fiber1.05 g Insoluble Fiber1.89 g Other Carbohydrates8.44 g Fat: Monounsaturated Fat0.06 g Polyunsaturated Fat0.15 g Saturated Fat0.07 g Trans Fat0.00 g Kilogram calories from Fat3.59 Calories from Saturated Fat0.59 Calories from Trans Fat0.00 Cholesterol0.00 milligram Water184.51 g MICRONUTRIENTS nutrientamountDRI/DV ( % ) Vitamins Water-soluble Vitamins B-Complex Vitamins Vitamin B10.09 mg8 Vitamin B20.05 mg4 Vitamin B30.35 mg2 Vitamin B3 ( Niacin Equivalents ) 1.05 mg Vitamin B60.27 mg16 Vitamin B120.00 mcg0 Biotin7.98 mcg27 Choline14.28 mg3 Folate31.50 mcg8 Folate ( DFE ) 31.50 mcg Folate ( nutrient ) 31.50 microgram Pantothenic Acid0.24 mg5 Vitamin C10.92 mg15 Fat-soluble Vitamins Vitamin A ( Retinoids and Carotenoids ) Vitamin A International Units ( IU ) 4.20 IU Vitamin A microgram Retinol Activity Equivalents ( RAE ) 0.21 microgram ( RAE ) 0 Vitamin A microgram Retinol Equivalents ( RE ) 0.42 microgram ( RE ) Retinol microgram Retinol Equivalents ( RE ) 0.00 microgram ( RE ) Carotenoid microgram Retinol Equivalents ( RE ) 0.42 microgram ( RE ) Alpha-Carotene0.00 mcg Beta-Carotene2.10 microgram Beta-Carotene Equivalents2.10 microgram Cryptoxanthin0.00 microgram Lutein and Zeaxanthin8.40 mcg Lycopene0.00 microgram Vitamin D Vitamin D International Units ( IU ) 0.00 IU0 Vitamin D mcg0.00 microgram Vitamin E Vitamin E mg Alpha-Tocopherol Equivalents ( ATE ) 0.04 milligram ( ATE ) 0 Vitamin E International Units ( IU ) 0.06 IU Vitamin E mg0.04 milligram Vitamin K1.05 mcg1 Minerals nutrientamountDRI/DV ( % ) Boron -- mcg Calcium46.20 mg5 Chloride12.60 milligram Chromium -- microgram -- Copper0.14 mg16 Fluoride -- milligram -- Iodine4.20 mcg3 Iron0.50 mg3 Magnesium23.10 mg6 Manganese0.32 mg16 Molybdenum -- microgram -- Phosphorus73.50 mg11 Potassium348.60 mg10 Selenium1.26 mcg2 Sodium6.30 mg0 Zinc0.44 mg4 INDIVIDUAL FATTY ACIDS

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The power of natural.

The ground that the onion is so much more active in its natural province than when cooked, is that it contains a assortment of organic sulfur compounds, contained in a volatile oil, that provide the wellness benefits. These are partially destroyed by heat. When eaten natural, its juice can move as an thorn and some people find it hard to digest. Those who are non tempted by the thought of eating natural onions can follow simple cookery methods that may do them more toothsome. For people with sensitive tummies, this is a far suited manner to bask the healthy benefits of onions. Onions baked in their teguments, in a similar manner to baked murphies, are besides delightful. This method of cooking supports all the goodness indoors, but the resulting spirit is milder and more aromatic than that of natural onions.


Although non about as valued a medicative agent as Allium sativum, onion has been used about as widely. Onions have been used in common people medical specialty for the alleviation of coughs, colds and catarrh, particularly asthma, but more late some of their healing belongingss have been attributed to a compound called allyl propyl disulphide, which is thought to hold a similar consequence to insulin in equilibrating blood sugar degrees. This does non intend that the onion can be used as a replacement for insulin therapy ; but it may be of aid to those who suffer from hypoglycemia. If you suffer from hypoglycemia consult your physician if you have any nutritionary questions.

How to choose and hive away

Globe onions should be clean and difficult and have dry, smooth teguments. Avoid onions in which the seen root has developed. Besides avoid those that show marks of decay. Onions should be stored at room temperature, off from bright visible radiation and in a good ventilated country. Those that are more acrid in spirit such as xanthous onions, will maintain longer than those with a sweeter gustatory sensations such as white onions, since the compounds that produce the crisp gustatory sensation are natural preservatives every bit good. All onions should be stored off from murphies, as they will absorb their wet and ethene gas, doing murphies to botch more easy. Make non hive away cooked onions in a metal bowl or storage container as this will do them to discolor. Freezing shredded onions will do them to lose much of their spirit.

Onions: Health Benefits, Health Risks & Nutrition Facts

Jarzabkowski explained that a peculiarly valuable flavonoid in onions is quercetin, which acts as an antioxidant that may be linked to forestalling malignant neoplastic disease. It has a host of other benefits, every bit good, harmonizing to the University of Maryland Medical Center, cut downing the symptoms of vesica infections, advancing prostate wellness and take downing blood force per unit area. Other of import phytochemicals in onions are disulfides, trisulfides, cepaene and vinyldithiins. They all are helpful in keeping good wellness and have anticancer and antimicrobic belongingss, harmonizing to the National Onion Association.

Health benefits

Harmonizing to Jarzabkowski, onions encourage a healthy bosom in many ways, including `` take downing blood force per unit area and take downing bosom onslaught hazard. '' A 2002 survey in the journal Thrombosis Research suggested that sulfur Acts of the Apostless as a natural blood dilutant and prevents blood thrombocytes from aggregating. When thrombocytes cluster, the hazard for bosom onslaught or shot additions. This research farther supports a similar 1992 survey in Thrombosis Research that focused on Ss in Allium sativum. Furthermore, a 1987 animate being survey in the Journal of Hypertension demonstrated delayed or reduced onset of high blood pressure with sulfur consumption. However, the writers said more research was needed to find if this benefit might be found in worlds.

Recommended related intelligence

Anticancer Compounds Found in Food, Machowsky, MS, RD, CDN, CSCS, Jason, Nutrition 411, Review Date 2/14, Accessed 28 March 2014. Allium Vegetables and Risk of Prostate Cancer: A Population-Based Study, JNCI, 2002, 94 ( 21 ) : 1648-1651, Accessed 28 March 2014. Protective consequence of Allium veggies against both esophageal and stomach malignant neoplastic disease: a coincident case-referent survey of a high-epidemic country in Jiangsu Province, China, Jpn J Cancer Res, 1999 Jun ; 90 ( 6 ) :614-21, Accessed 28 March 2014. Depression and Diet, Nutrition 411, Review Date November 2008, Accessed February 20th, 2014. The National Onion Association, Accessed 6 May 2014.


This genus besides contains several other species diversely referred to as onions and cultivated for nutrient, such as the Nipponese bunching onion ( Allium fistulosum ) , the tree onion ( A. ×proliferum ) , and the Canada onion ( Allium canadense ) . The name `` wild onion '' is applied to a figure of Allium species, but A. cepa is entirely known from cultivation. Its hereditary wild original signifier is non known, although flights from cultivation have become established in some parts. The onion is most often a biennial or a perennial works, but is normally treated as an one-year and harvested in its first growth season.

The onion works has a fan of hollow, bluish-green foliages and its bulb at the base of the works begins to swell when a certain day-length is reached. The bulbs are composed of shortened, compressed, belowground roots surrounded by heavy modified graduated table ( leaves ) that envelop a cardinal bud at the tip of the root. In the fall ( or in spring, in the instance of overwintering onions ) , the leaf dies down and the outer beds of the bulb become dry and brickle. The harvest is harvested and dried and the onions are ready for usage or storage. The harvest is prone to assail by a figure of plagues and diseases, peculiarly the onion fly, the onion eelworm, and assorted Fungis cause decomposition. Some assortments of A. cepa, such as shallots and murphy onions, produce multiple bulbs.


The onion works has been grown and selectively bred in cultivation for at least 7,000 old ages. It is a two-year works, but is normally grown as an one-year. Modern assortments typically grow to a tallness of 15 to 45 centimeter ( 6 to 18 in ) . The foliages are yellowish- to bluish green and turn alternately in a planate, fan-shaped wrapping. They are heavy, hollow, and cylindrical, with one planate side. They are at their broadest about a one-fourth of the manner up, beyond which they taper towards a blunt tip. The base of each foliage is a planate, normally white sheath that grows out of a basal phonograph record. From the bottom of the phonograph record, a package of hempen roots extends for a short manner into the dirt. As the onion matures, nutrient militias begin to roll up in the foliage bases and the bulb of the onion crestless waves.

Onion types and merchandises

Common onions are usually available in three coloring material assortments. Yellow or brown onions ( called red in some European states ) , are full-flavoured and are the onions of pick for mundane usage. Yellow onions turn a rich, dark brown when caramelized and give Gallic onion soup its sweet spirit. The ruddy onion ( called purple in some European states ) is a good pick for fresh usage when its coloring material livens up the dish ; it is besides used in grilling. White onions are the traditional onions used in authoritative Mexican culinary art ; they have a aureate coloring material when cooked and a peculiarly sweet spirits when sautéed.

Culinary utilizations

Onions are normally chopped and used as an ingredient in assorted hearty warm dishes, and may besides be used as a chief ingredient in their ain right, for illustration in Gallic onion soup or onion Indian relish. They are various and can be baked, boiled, braised, grilled, fried, roasted, sautéed, or eaten natural in salads. Their superimposed nature makes them easy to excavate out one time cooked, easing stuffing them, as in sogan-dolma. Onions are a basic in Indian culinary art, used as a thickener agent for curries and gravies. Onions pickled in acetum are eaten as a bite. These are traditionally a side functioning in saloon and fish and bit stores throughout the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth. Pickled onions form portion of a British saloon plowman 's tiffin, normally served with cheese and ale. In North America, sliced onions are battered, deep-fried, and served as onion rings.

Eye annoyance

Newly cut onions frequently cause a cutting esthesis in the eyes of people nearby, and frequently unmanageable cryings. This is caused by the release of a volatile gas, syn-propanethial-S-oxide, which stimulates nervousnesss in the oculus making a cutting esthesis. This gas is produced by a concatenation of reactions which serve as a defence mechanism: chopping an onion causes harm to cells which releases enzymes called alliinases. These break down aminic acid sulfoxides and bring forth sulfenic acids. A specific sulfenic acid, 1-propenesulfenic acid, is quickly acted on by a 2nd enzyme, the lachrymatory factor synthase, bring forthing the syn-propanethial-S-oxide. This gas diffuses through the air and shortly reaches the eyes, where it activates centripetal nerve cells. Lacrimal secretory organs produce cryings to thin and blush out the thorn.


Onions are best cultivated in fertile dirts that are well-drained. Sandy loams are good as they are low in sulfur, while clayey dirts normally have a high sulfur content and bring forth pungent bulbs. Onions require a high degree of foods in the dirt. Phosphorus is frequently present in sufficient measures, but may be applied before seting because of its low degree of handiness in cold dirts. Nitrogen and potassium hydroxide can be applied at regular intervals during the turning season, the last application of N being at least four hebdomads before reaping. Bulbing onions are day-length sensitive ; their bulbs begin turning merely after the figure of daylight hours has surpassed some minimum measure. Most traditional European onions are referred to as `` long-day '' onions, bring forthing bulbs merely after 14 hours or more of daytime occurs. Southern European and North African assortments are frequently known as `` intermediate-day '' types, necessitating merely 12–13 hours of daytime to excite bulb formation. Finally, `` short-day '' onions, which have been developed in more recent times, are planted in mild-winter countries in the autumn and signifier bulbs in the early spring, and require merely 11–12 hours of daytime to excite bulb formation. Onions are a cool-weather harvest and can be grown in USDA zones 3 to 9. Hot temperatures or other nerve-racking conditions cause them to `` bolt '' , intending that a flower root begins to turn.

Onions may be grown from seed or from sets. Onion seeds are ephemeral and fresh seeds germinate better. The seeds are sown thinly in shallow drills, thinning the workss in phases. In suited climes, certain cultivars can be sown in late summer and fall to overwinter in the land and bring forth early harvests the undermentioned twelvemonth. Onion sets are produced by seeding seed thickly in early summer in hapless dirt and the little bulbs produced are harvested in the fall. These bulbs are planted the following spring and turn into mature bulbs subsequently in the twelvemonth. Certain cultivars are used for this intent and these may non hold such good storage features as those grown straight from seed.

Routine attention during the turning season involves maintaining the rows free of viing weeds, particularly when the workss are immature. The workss are shallow-rooted and do non necessitate a great trade of H2O when established. Bulbing normally takes topographic point after 12 to 18 hebdomads. The bulbs can be gathered when needed to eat fresh, but if they will be kept in storage, they should be harvested after the foliages have died back of course. In dry conditions, they can be left on the surface of the dirt for a few yearss to dry out decently, so they can be placed in cyberspaces, roped into strings, or laid in beds in shallow boxes. They should be stored in a well-ventilated, cool topographic point such as a shed.

Plagues and diseases

Onions suffer from a figure of works upsets. The most serious for the place nurseryman are likely to be the onion fly, root and bulb eelworm, white putrefaction, and neck putrefaction. Diseases impacting the leaf include rust and carbon black, downy mold, and white tip disease. The bulbs may be affected by dividing, white putrefaction, and neck putrefaction. Shanking is a status in which the cardinal foliages turn xanthous and the interior portion of the bulb collapses into an malodorous sludge. Most of these upsets are best treated by taking and firing affected workss. The larvae of the onion foliage mineworker or leek moth ( Acrolepiopsis assectella ) sometimes attack the leaf and may tunnel down into the bulb.

Neck putrefaction is a fungous disease impacting onions in storage. It is caused by Botrytis allii, which attacks the cervix and upper parts of the bulb, doing a Grey mold to develop. The symptoms frequently foremost happen where the bulb has been damaged and dispersed downwards in the affected graduated tables. Large measures of spores are produced and crust-like Sclerotium may besides develop. In clip, a dry putrefaction sets in and the bulb becomes a dry, mummified construction. This disease may be present throughout the turning period, but merely manifests itself when the bulb is in storage. Antifungal seed dressings are available and the disease can be minimised by forestalling physical harm to the bulbs at harvest home, careful drying and hardening of the mature onions, and right storage in a cool, dry topographic point with plentifulness of go arounding air.

Common onion group ( volt-ampere. cepa )

Most of the diverseness within A. cepa occurs within this group, the most economically of import Allium harvest. Plants within this group organize big individual bulbs, and are grown from seed or seed-grown sets. The bulk of cultivars grown for dry bulbs, salad onions, and pickling onions belong to this group. The scope of diverseness found among these cultivars includes fluctuation in photoperiod ( length of twenty-four hours that triggers bulbing ) , storage life, spirit, and clamber coloring material. Common onions range from the pungent assortments used for dried soups and onion pulverization to the mild and hearty sweet onions, such as the Vidalia from Georgia, USA, or Walla Walla from Washington that can be sliced and eaten altogether on a sandwich.

Aggregatum group ( volt-ampere. aggregatum )

This group contains shallots and murphy onions, besides referred to as multiplier onions. The bulbs are smaller than those of common onions, and a individual works signifiers an aggregative bunch of several bulbs. They are propagated about entirely from girl bulbs, although reproduction from seed is possible. Shallots are the most of import subgroup within this group and consist the lone cultivars cultivated commercially. They form aggregative bunchs of little, narrowly egg-shaped to pear-shaped bulbs. Potato onions differ from shallots in organizing larger bulbs with fewer bulbs per bunch, and holding a flattened ( onion-like ) form. However, intermediate signifiers exist.

I'itoi onion is a fecund multiplier onion cultivated in the Baboquivari Peak Wilderness, Arizona country. This small-bulb type has a shallot-like spirit and is easy to turn and ideal for hot, dry climes. Bulbs are separated, and planted in the autumn 1 in below the surface and 12 in apart. Bulbs will multiply into bunchs and can be harvested throughout the cooler months. Tops die back in the heat of summer and may return with heavy rains ; bulbs can stay in the land or be harvested and stored in a cool dry topographic point for seting in the autumn. The workss seldom flower ; extension is by division.

little onions

Glad you asked, Dick! I had the same result when I pulled a twosome of reds late. There are several factors involved and most have to make with dirt. pH is critical ; it should be between 6.0 and 7.0 ( even 6.8 ) . And it should hold a twosome of inches of composted organic affair in it. A good slow-release fertiliser helps, excessively. Or you could fertilise of all time twosome of hebdomads or so. Good drainage is essential…and so is systematically regular lacrimation. And weeding. You could be right about N ; make a dirt trial. And see that onions are light/sun-sensitive. You need to cognize that they are suited to your latitude ( twenty-four hours length ) .

Leftover Onion sets from spring crop

Hello. I live near Dallas TX and planted onion sets in March in a mature, raised bed. I was able to reap and eat some of the 1015 sweet onions but the ruddy onions was n't deserving trouble oneselfing with. As an experiment I left some of the onions in the garden to stalk and bloom. These flowers produced seed cods, dried out and hold since produced little sets about 6-8 '' tall where the seed cods fell. It 's now November 20 and I 've harvested my autumn harvest of other veggies and the lone thing left are these mature, segmented bulbs from spring and these new sets. I 'd wish to hold onions once more in the spring. Should I go forth them in the land as is, delve them up and transfer now or delve them up and graft in the spring? If I dig them up for spring, how do I care for them over the winter?

Hi, Donna, Yes, this can

Hi, Donna, Yes, this can happen even with boughten onions. The job is bacterial soft putrefaction, which can impact about every known fruit, heavy tober, root, and lush bud or root of vegetable workss. As you experienced, septic onions go unnoticed, can non be detected, until after crop. Soft putrefaction bacterium exists in the dirt and works garbage. There are no immune onion assortments. Heavy rain, high air currents, and hail can do hurts that serve as entry points for the bacterium. It 's impotant to command any diseases in your garden ; harvest rotary motion, organic dirt, proper pH are among the common corrections when a garden might hold disease. It sounds like you did all the right things in footings of harvest home and hardening. Sorry to convey this unpleasant intelligence.

Hi I want to be Onion Famer.

Hi I want to be Onion Famer. I 've 1/2 Hectare land. I want to farm in 1 Hectare land. Land is near to river and there is no deficiency of irrigation. But I 'm small spot afraid of temperature. I 've heard that temperature should be 13-25 degree Celsius. But in my country Jan ( 2-21 ) Feb ( 3-24 ) Mar ( 1-31 ) Apr ( 9-34 ) May ( 14-33 ) June ( 16-32 ) July ( 17-31 ) Aug ( 12-31 ) Sep ( 16-31 ) Oct ( 11-31 ) Nov ( 5-24 ) Dec ( 0-22 ) . Can I get down Onion farming in this temperature scope? and If I started onion agriculture in 1 Hectare how much ton it can bring forth? I 'm new in farming. I 'm anticipating Your sentiment, suggestions and experiences.

That clime should be all right I

That clime should be all right I do n't cognize where you live so I ca n't state you when to works and crop but if your temperature does n't travel below -5 you should be good. If everything goes ideally you could acquire up to 80 dozenss off 1 hectare but you 'll likely acquire less than half of that at first. In instance you 're still make up one's minding on what type of onion to turn I 'd urge Walla Walla. They 're sweet, large, stalwart and will acquire more net income. You 'll necessitate about 400,000 seeds per hectare. You want full Sun and loose, just-barely-acidic dirt without excessively much sulfur. 800 lbs of fertiliser should be good for 1 hectare. Be careful with pesticide. Too much will kill pollinators. Which you need. Besides you should hold a elaborate program for everything and a nice irrigation system or you could neglect miserably. Good fortune!

I 've got a two-crop rotary motion

I 've got a two-crop rotary motion of 250 Stuttgarters in my nursery ( planted six hebdomads apart, at the beginning of March and the center of April ) , paring greentops as I use them ( they do savor astonishing ) and allowing them turn in a assorted compost of chopped bamboo, potassium hydroxide from my incinerator, commercial potting compost and commercial general-purpose compost. They 're turning at a colossal rate, faster than I can eat them! I think I likely got lucky in my pick of turning assortment, as I 'm at reasonably high latitude ( 53N ) yet the mean early planting shoot tallness is more than 18 inches! Oh, and I 'm utilizing no dressing fertilizer, merely feeding with pure rainwater!

Are you speaking about onion

Are you speaking about onion seedheads ( the flowers that form seeds ) ? If so, harvest the flower when most of the seeds are dry, so shop in a cool, dry location for 2 or 3 hebdomads. You can hive away them for up to 1 to 2 old ages. Keep in head that onions cross-pollinate readily, so the seeds will likely non be like to the parent works unless the workss have been isolated. Besides, the seeds of loanblends will non come true ( they will change in features ) . If you are speaking about perennial Egyptian onions, they form a bunch of bantam bulbs, called sets, on top of the works. They seldom form flowers. When the sets become heavy plenty, the works will flex over, and the sets will root in the dirt. Thus, another name for this works, Walking onion. Meanwhile, the onion bulb below land will get down to split, organizing 2 or more bulbs. To reap the top sets, delay for the chaff to dry, which may happen in summer solstice to fall ; you can eat these or works them for more onions. Once an onion bulb in the dirt has divided, you can reap some of the divisions in autumn, but leave at least one bulb to go on on for following twelvemonth. Or, you can go forth these entirely ; they will bring forth, in a bunch, more chaffs with topsets.

I bought a xanthous onion in

I bought a xanthous onion in the food market shop, and so did n't acquire around to utilizing it. My hubby and I noticed that the onion started to turn leafy vegetables, so I decided to see what would go on if I popped it into a pot with some regular dirt in it. Now it 's booming and I 'm non truly certain what to make. It has about 2 pes long leafy vegetables, and at that place seems to be two chief chaffs. The two chaffs started out highly close together, and now they are a batch farther apart. I planted it a batch deeper than the article says ( whole onion under the dirt in my instance ) . I was inquiring if I can reap some of the leafy vegetables and utilize them like green onions? And how will I cognize when to utilize the onion or non? And how will I be certain to reap it without killing the works wholly?

George Wilson is right.

George Wilson is right. Ailsa Craig and Kelsae are different assortments. Ailsa Craig is a assortment that originated in Scotland in 1887. Kelsae is a assortment that dates to some clip around 1980. Johnson Seeds of Cambridge, England bought the works patent for Kelsae in 1990 and still owns it. When Johnson got control of Kelsae other seed companies began to market Ailsa Craig as a replacement. The difference is Ailsa Craig normally averages 7 pound. while Kelsae holds the Guiness World Record at over 15 pounds. Johnson’s uses the name Kelsae Exhibition, but the assortment is besides called Kelsae Giant, Kelsae Sweet, and Kelsae Sweet Giant and all are the same assortment. There are no other strains.

Few people seem to make this.

Few people seem to make this. We are impressed! Our beginnings suggest raising the onion sets before the land freezes, puting them in a cool, dry, dark topographic point ( such as a cellar ) to bring around, or dry. You could lace the leafy vegetables and hang them, if you like. When the onions are dry, the roots and the greens—the beginning of nutrition—are prohibitionist ( about papery ) , cut them off and set the sets into a paper bag and go forth in the same cool, dry, dark topographic point until early spring. Then works them. We besides had a idea, because we like to experiment. How about go forthing a twosome or a few in the land, but mulched to a great extent, merely to see how they fare. Let us cognize how these all fare following season.

Tiny white bugs destructing bulb. Not maggots.

A hebdomad ago I noticed my onions were n't making so great.. My female parent suggested delving one out to see what was traveling on. I did. They were loaded with ruddy brown emmets transporting around these bantam white things on their caputs! I assumed they were ant larvae or something. So, I put some organic emmet killer down and waited a hebdomad. I dug up another one and they are still looking sickly as of all time, but now, if you peel back the first bed there is a battalion of these teeny tiny creeping white bugs! I besides spotted one crystal clear super thin, like 1/2 the size of a stitching acerate leaf, writhe? ? Aid! ! ! I 'm pretty sure they are n't maggots. They have legs.

onion flowers

When purchasing onion sets, expression for those that are no thicker than a pencil, and works them out at a clip recommended for your country ; larger sets tend to bolt. Besides, maintain in head that 1015 onions are a short-day assortment ; do certain that type is recommended for your country. Short-day assortments form bulbs when daylength is between 10 and 12 hours ; intermediate-day ( day-neutral ) onions start to organize bulbs between about 12 and 14 hours of daytime ; and long-day assortments form bulbs at about 14 to 16 hours daylight. If a short-day assortment is planted in an country best suited for a long-day type, for illustration, so the bulbs might organize early and non acquire really big. A general regulation of pollex for the U.S. is that northern nurserymans use a long-day type, nurserymans in the mid-section usage day-neutral, and southern nurserymans, a short-day type.

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