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Professional research paper about technology

Research Paper on Technology

Over the past decennary, new engineerings have come about holding astronomically powerful impact on the economic system. The springs and bounds that the technology industry has taken weren’t ever for the better. The downsides to all of these triumphs in adult male vs. machine have come with their jobs and a monetary value. These ruins are far from over and we can anticipate a planetary struggle at the custodies of technology in the close hereafter. Technology has been used as a larceny device in many respects, from occupations to copyrighted belongings. With unrestricted beginnings such as the cyberspace, the ways to decelerate down this moral slaughter are few and far between.

Morality can besides be weighed in as a big factor in the determination to incorporate newer engineerings into your personal corporate imperium. Many concern proprietors in their in-between ages feel it down-right immoral to enroll machines as field workers ( Atlas of U.S. Economy ) . A merchandise still in beta-stage is one of a new strain of constructs. It is considered portion of a new line of ‘smart technologies.’ This peculiar device has its user fill out a list of penchants and one time completed, it acts as its user’s stock agent. It does all the command necessary harmonizing to its owner’s fiscal place and risk-taking penchants. However, this device may stay unreleased longer than originally anticipated due to strong protests by professional stock agents and fiscal conservativists likewise ( Hugh Watson ) .

White-collar occupations aren’t the lone territory of profession that have been and will go on to be greatly affected by new engineerings. The music industry has grown by springs and bounds, particularly in the last two old ages, with the promotion of a technology known as pro-tools. Pro-tools allow you to digitally enter, edit, and double your ain music into a professional sounding undertaking. Digital cut and paste techniques have simplified the entering procedure by enabling audio sweetenings that older entering applied scientists would salivate over ( Kelin J. Kuhn ) . The usage of pro tools can turn any aspirant garage instrumentalist into the following record chart topper by opening the doors to any within a middle-class budget. However, many feel that this is possibly a door that should hold remained closed to these new reachings. These engineerings make much of the endowment one time needed to make these aural chef-d'oeuvres disused ( Impact Fall ) .

Even communicating has been revolutionized clip and clip once more by today’s promotions. The ever-growing craze of cell phones manages to multiply itself at an unbelievable rate twelvemonth after twelvemonth. With their debut to society in the 1980’s, cell phones were seldom used. They were bulky and well expensive to keep. Twenty old ages subsequently, that same construct built off the thought of nomadic communicating can non merely be found in the custodies of corporate executives, but the kids of parttime dish washers. The resources needed to obtain and trip a cell phone have drastically decreased and go on to make so as the technology becomes more and more available ( James M. O’Neill ) . Headset devices and mikes simplify the already childishly easy protocol of speaking on the cell phone by liberating up the speaker’s custodies. Around the crook for this phenomenon is a headset and microphone much like the 1s available now, difference being the deficiency of cardinal device. The existent phone portion of this pocket communicating web will but cut out all together. The receiving system for the orbiting orbiters will be in the earphone of the device and dialing will be voice activated. The lone thing maintaining this promotion from release is a possible wellness hazard that is still being investigated by wellness boards from possible radiation leaking from the receiving system which would be located right following to the aural pit ( Kelin J. Kuhn ) .

Possibly in the most actual reading of larceny, buccaneering is a aggressive phenomenon among grownups and kids likewise. A face the music industry would wish to ( but ne'er will ) shortly forget is that of a adult male named Shawn Fanning. Shawn Fanning created a plan named Napster named after a nickname given to him by his friends. Napster made it possible for users to ‘share’ music files on their computing machine with other people merely by seting it in a booklet that could be browsed by another computing machine outside the LAN. This angered many creative persons including a adult male named Lars Ulrich. Ulrich best known as the drummer for Metallica, sued Fanning and several frequent Napster users for illicitly downloading Metallica MP3 files. This spelled the terminal for Napster. This innovator gnutella plan would finally let go of a subscription version of its originally free plan. However this release went ignored by a populace now hooked on the file sharing craze ( The Arizona Office of Public Affairs ) . The chief gravity of people flowed to another plan known as Morpheus for their file sharing demands. Two cardinal differences between Morpheus and Napster were that Morpheus didn’t merely offer music, but to boot offered pictures, paperss, and package to any of its non-paying members. Besides, it delivered the ability to download these media files from multiple users at the same time, therefore increasing download velocities drastically. Morpheus was the incorporate merchandise of two sponsor-supported companies known as Music City and Kazaa. In the thick 2001 and all of Morpheus’ success, Music City made the overall fatal determination to follow suit with Napster and go a wage service. After this, Kazaa divided from the Morpheus merge to organize its ain plan. Since many users agreed with Kazaa’s determination, the file sharing was non slowed at all. Kazaa’s rise in popularity couldn’t have come at a better clip for the frequent cyberspace user, this being because the rise of broadband cyberspace endorsers was booming. Broadband cyberspace ( which is now used by 65 % of CT occupants and 47 % of the entire U.S. occupants ) increases internet interaction velocity by exponential sums. The simple act of downloading the newest Hollywood hit which would hold taken yearss on dial-up cyberspace can now be completed in a clip window every bit little as an hr or two ( Bob Jacobson ) .

The universe leader in computing machine engineerings, traveling by the name of Microsoft Inc. was subjected to an onslaught of buccaneering upon the release of their recent popular operating system Windows XP. The ‘Professional’ version of this package was pirated so massively that its merchandise codification had to be disabled from Windowss updates on the Microsoft site. Furthermore, one month before the scheduled legal release of this OS, it was already installed and running on 30,000 computing machines countrywide. This is a perfect illustration of one of the biggest known buccaneering jobs. The ability to obtain and/or work a technology before it’s even supposed to be available to the general populace. There’s a test scheduled to get down on the buccaneering issue as a whole in early 2004 ( Hugh Watson ) .

These issues can non be solved with one simple solution. They come with many effects attached no affair what is decided. Advancement is inevitable and can be really good to any concern. However, many developers of newer engineerings see it fit to plan their merchandise for stealing or destructing. Regulation is most likely one of the best possible solutions to this job. Many concerns could boom if merely they’d give into the obstruction of technology and accept it. Possibly they wouldn’t be so discerning to make so if so many people weren’t developing their thoughts merely to ache others morally and financially.

Technology and Its Effect on Human Freedom and Happiness in Society

In the current topographic points of work, technology has transformed the manner people work. It is now easy to work from distant topographic points with more information without holding to see offices or acquire into libraries for such of information. This has been enabled through the debut of cyberspace that allows one to work from anyplace and direct the work to the chief offices. Peoples can easy pass on through electronic mail, phones and other communicating methods as they work from different topographic points. These have allowed people to work at their ain convenience without the bunco of traveling from their places and traveling through traffic jams.

The promotion in communicating and debut of modern installations has allowed people to populate merrily. Modern installations such as those used in infirmaries have allowed the intervention of diseases and complaints that were considered lifelessly early on. With such confidence, people are more comfy and happier with information that such diseases can be contained. Technology has besides developed and enhanced the field of amusement. Introductions such as the Mp-3 participants and iPods allow people to listen to music and have entree to other signifiers of amusement such as games at their ain convenience.

Technology Research Paper for Those Who Want to Learn

Writing a technology research paper can be interesting for some pupils because it’s a instead specific sphere. But what can you make if it’s non your cup of tea and you don’t follow the latest IT intelligence? How can you bring forth a good technology term paper if you’re non that engaged into the subject? In such a state of affairs you can good utilize the aid of person who has experience non merely in the universe of inventions, but besides in the academic composing itself as research documents are non that simple to make either. But don’t concern about the hunt of such aid because that’s something we are good at, and you can do certain of it by reading farther.

About This List

The technology research subjects below are listed in classs and include hyperlinked articles to assist you acquire you started. Many of the essays are used in popular college research essay text editions like Positions on Argument ( erectile dysfunction. Nancy Wood ) , which I use with my college pupils. However, because technology alterations so rapidly, I 've besides included links to articles in Discover Magazine which highlight interesting new inventions. Discover is a good topographic point to get down looking for subjects since the magazine is written with important scientific beginnings for the general reader. Here are the stairss to get down your research paper:


The human species ' usage of technology began with the transition of natural resources into simple tools. The prehistoric find of how to command fire and the ulterior Neolithic Revolution increased the available beginnings of nutrient and the innovation of the wheel helped worlds to go in and command their environment. Developments in historic times, including the printing imperativeness, the telephone, and the Internet, have lessened physical barriers to communicating and allowed worlds to interact freely on a planetary graduated table. The steady advancement of military technology has brought arms of ever-increasing destructive power, from nines to atomic arms.

Definition and use

The term `` technology '' rose to prominence in the twentieth century in connexion with the Second Industrial Revolution. The term 's significances changed in the early twentieth century when American societal scientists, get downing with Thorstein Veblen, translated thoughts from the German construct of Technik into `` technology. '' In German and other European linguistic communications, a differentiation exists between technik and technologie that is absent in English, which normally translates both footings as `` technology. '' By the 1930s, `` technology '' referred non merely to the survey of the industrial humanistic disciplines but to the industrial humanistic disciplines themselves.

In 1937, the American sociologist Read Bain wrote that `` technology includes all tools, machines, utensils, arms, instruments, lodging, vesture, pass oning and transporting devices and the accomplishments by which we produce and use them. '' Bain 's definition remains common among bookmans today, particularly societal scientists. Scientists and applied scientists normally prefer to specify technology as applied scientific discipline, instead than as the things that people make and utilize. More late, bookmans have borrowed from European philosophers of `` technique '' to widen the significance of technology to assorted signifiers of instrumental ground, as in Foucault 's work on engineerings of the ego ( techniques de soi ) .

Dictionaries and bookmans have offered a assortment of definitions. The Merriam-Webster Learner 's Dictionary offers a definition of the term: `` the usage of scientific discipline in industry, technology, etc. , to contrive utile things or to work out jobs '' and `` a machine, piece of equipment, method, etc. , that is created by technology. '' Ursula Franklin, in her 1989 `` Real World of Technology '' talk, gave another definition of the construct ; it is `` pattern, the manner we do things around here. '' The term is frequently used to connote a specific field of technology, or to mention to high technology or merely consumer electronics, instead than technology as a whole. Bernard Stiegler, in Technics and Time, 1, defines technology in two ways: as `` the chase of life by means other than life, '' and as `` organized inorganic affair. ''

Technology can be most loosely defined as the entities, both stuff and immaterial, created by the application of mental and physical attempt in order to accomplish some value. In this use, technology refers to tools and machines that may be used to work out real-world jobs. It is a far-reaching term that may include simple tools, such as a wrecking bar or wooden spoon, or more complex machines, such as a infinite station or atom gas pedal. Tools and machines need non be material ; practical technology, such as computing machine package and concern methods, autumn under this definition of technology. W. Brian Arthur defines technology in a likewise wide manner as `` a agency to carry through a human intent. ''

The word `` technology '' can besides be used to mention to a aggregation of techniques. In this context, it is the current province of humanity 's cognition of how to unite resources to bring forth coveted merchandises, to work out jobs, carry through demands, or satisfy wants ; it includes proficient methods, accomplishments, procedures, techniques, tools and natural stuffs. When combined with another term, such as `` medical technology '' or `` infinite technology, '' it refers to the province of the several field 's cognition and tools. `` State-of-the-art technology '' refers to the high technology available to humanity in any field.

Technology can be viewed as an activity that forms or alterations civilization. Additionally, technology is the application of math, scientific discipline, and the humanistic disciplines for the benefit of life as it is known. A modern illustration is the rise of communicating technology, which has lessened barriers to human interaction and as a consequence has helped engender new subcultures ; the rise of cyberculture has at its footing the development of the Internet and the computing machine. Not all technology enhances civilization in a originative manner ; technology can besides assist ease political subjugation and war via tools such as guns. As a cultural activity, technology predates both scientific discipline and technology, each of which formalise some facets of technological enterprise.

Science, technology and technology

Technology is frequently a effect of scientific discipline and technology, although technology as a human activity precedes the two Fieldss. For illustration, scientific discipline might analyze the flow of negatrons in electrical music directors by utilizing already-existing tools and cognition. This new-found cognition may so be used by applied scientists to make new tools and machines such as semiconducting materials, computing machines, and other signifiers of advanced technology. In this sense, scientists and applied scientists may both be considered engineers ; the three Fieldss are frequently considered as one for the intents of research and mention.

The exact dealingss between scientific discipline and technology in peculiar have been debated by scientists, historiographers, and policymakers in the late twentieth century, in portion because the argument can inform the support of basic and applied scientific discipline. In the immediate aftermath of World War II, for illustration, it was widely considered in the United States that technology was merely `` applied scientific discipline '' and that to fund basic scientific discipline was to harvest technological consequences in due clip. An articulation of this doctrine could be found explicitly in Vannevar Bush 's treatise on postwar scientific discipline policy, Science – The Endless Frontier: `` New merchandises, new industries, and more occupations require uninterrupted add-ons to knowledge of the Torahs of nature. This indispensable new cognition can be obtained merely through basic scientific research. '' In the late-1960s, nevertheless, this position came under direct onslaught, prima towards enterprises to fund scientific discipline for specific undertakings ( enterprises resisted by the scientific community ) . The issue remains combative, though most analysts resist the theoretical account that technology merely is a consequence of scientific research.

Paleolithic ( 2.5 Ma – 10 Ka )

The find and use of fire, a simple energy beginning with many profound utilizations, was a turning point in the technological development of world. The exact day of the month of its find is non known ; grounds of burnt carnal castanetss at the Cradle of Humankind suggests that the domestication of fire occurred before 1 Ma ; scholarly consensus indicates that Homo erectus had controlled fire by between 500 and 400 Ka. Fire, fueled with wood and wood coal, allowed early worlds to cook their nutrient to increase its digestibleness, bettering its alimentary value and broadening the figure of nutrients that could be eaten.

Neolithic through classical antiquity ( 10 Ka – 300 CE )

Continuing betterments led to the furnace and bellows and provided the ability to smelt and hammer native metals ( of course happening in comparatively pure signifier ) . Gold, Cu, Ag, and lead, were such early metals. The advantages of Cu tools over rock, bone, and wooden tools were rapidly evident to early worlds, and native Cu was likely used from near the beginning of Neolithic times ( about 10 Ka ) . Native Cu does non of course occur in big sums, but Cu ores are quite common and some of them produce metal easy when burned in wood or wood coal fires. Finally, the working of metals led to the find of metals such as bronze and brass ( about 4000 BCE ) . The first utilizations of Fe metals such as steel day of the months to around 1800 BCE.

Meanwhile, worlds were larning to tackle other signifiers of energy. The earliest known usage of air current power is the sailing boat ; the earliest record of a ship under canvas is that of a Nile boat that dates back to the 8th millenary BCE. From prehistoric times, Egyptians likely used the power of the one-year implosion therapy of the Nile to water their lands, bit by bit larning to modulate much of it through intentionally built irrigation channels and `` gimmick '' basins. Similarly, the early peoples of Mesopotamia, the Sumerians, learned to utilize the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers for much the same intents. However, more extended usage of air current and H2O ( and even human ) power required another innovation.

Harmonizing to archeologists, the wheel was invented around 4000 BCE likely independently and about at the same time in Mesopotamia ( in contemporary Iraq ) , the Northern Caucasus ( Maykop civilization ) and Central Europe. Estimates on when this may hold occurred scope from 5500 to 3000 BCE with most experts seting it closer to 4000 BCE. The oldest artefacts with drawings that depict wheeled carts day of the month from about 3500 BCE ; nevertheless, the wheel may hold been in usage for millenary before these drawings were made. There is besides grounds from the same period for the usage of the thrower 's wheel. More late, the oldest-known wooden wheel in the universe was found in the Ljubljana fens of Slovenia.

Medieval and modern history ( 300 CE – nowadays )

Inventions continued through the Middle Ages with inventions such as silk, the Equus caballus neckband and quoitss in the first few hundred old ages after the autumn of the Roman Empire. Medieval technology saw the usage of simple machines ( such as the lever, the prison guard, and the block ) being combined to organize more complicated tools, such as the garden cart, windmills and redstem storksbills. The Renaissance brought away many of these inventions, including the printing imperativeness ( which facilitated the greater communicating of cognition ) , and technology became progressively associated with scientific discipline, get downing a rhythm of common promotion. The promotions in technology in this epoch allowed a more steady supply of nutrient, followed by the wider handiness of consumer goods.

Get downing in the United Kingdom in the eighteenth century, the Industrial Revolution was a period of great technological find, peculiarly in the countries of agribusiness, fabrication, excavation, metallurgy, and conveyance, driven by the find of steam power. Technology took another measure in a 2nd industrial revolution with the harnessing of electricity to make such inventions as the electric motor, light bulb, and countless others. Scientific promotion and the find of new constructs subsequently allowed for powered flight and promotions in medical specialty, chemical science, natural philosophies, and technology. The rise in technology has led to skyscrapers and wide urban countries whose dwellers rely on motors to transport them and their nutrient supply. Communication was besides greatly improved with the innovation of the telegraph, telephone, wireless and telecasting. The late 19th and early twentieth centuries saw a revolution in transit with the innovation of the aeroplane and car.

The twentieth century brought a host of inventions. In natural philosophies, the find of atomic fission has led to both atomic arms and atomic power. Computers were besides invented and later miniaturized utilizing transistors and incorporate circuits. Information technology later led to the creative activity of the Internet, which ushered in the current Information Age. Worlds have besides been able to research infinite with orbiters ( subsequently used for telecommunication ) and in manned missions traveling all the manner to the Moon. In medical specialty, this epoch brought inventions such as open-heart surgery and subsequently root cell therapy along with new medicines and interventions.

Complex fabrication and building techniques and organisations are needed to do and keep these new engineerings, and full industries have arisen to back up and develop wining coevalss of progressively more complex tools. Modern technology progressively relies on preparation and instruction – their interior decorators, builders, upholders, and users frequently require sophisticated general and specific preparation. Furthermore, these engineerings have become so complex that full Fieldss have been created to back up them, including technology, medical specialty, and computing machine scientific discipline, and other Fieldss have been made more complex, such as building, transit and architecture.

Incredulity and critics

Many, such as the Luddites and outstanding philosopher Martin Heidegger, hold serious, although non wholly, deterministic reserves about technology ( see `` The Question Concerning Technology '' ) . Harmonizing to Heidegger bookmans Hubert Dreyfus and Charles Spinosa, `` Heidegger does non oppose technology. He hopes to uncover the kernel of technology in a manner that 'in no manner confines us to a stultified irresistible impulse to force on blindly with technology or, what comes to the same thing, to arise impotently against it. ' Indeed, he promises that 'when we one time unfastened ourselves expressly to the kernel of technology, we find ourselves out of the blue taken into a freeing claim. ' What this entails is a more complex relationship to technology than either techno-optimists or techno-pessimists tend to let. ''

Some of the most affecting unfavorable judgments of technology are found in what are now considered to be dystopian literary classics such as Aldous Huxley 's Brave New World, Anthony Burgess 's A Clockwork Orange, and George Orwell 's Nineteen Eighty-Four. In Goethe 's Faust, Faust selling his psyche to the Satan in return for power over the physical universe is besides frequently interpreted as a metaphor for the acceptance of industrial technology. More late, modern plants of scientific discipline fiction such as those by Philip K. Dick and William Gibson and movies such as Blade Runner and Ghost in the Shell undertaking extremely ambivalent or prophylactic attitudes toward technology 's impact on human society and individuality.

Optimism and incredulity in the twenty-first century

He uses two chief statements to support his point. First, because of recent technological progresss, an increasing figure of workers are losing their occupations. Yet, scientific grounds fails to clearly show that technology has displaced so many workers that it has created more jobs than it has solved. Indeed, mechanization threatens repetitive occupations but higher-end occupations are still necessary because they complement technology and manual occupations that `` requires flexibility judgement and common sense '' remain difficult to replace with machines. Second, surveies have non shown clear links between recent technology progresss and the pay tendencies of the last decennaries.

Complex technological systems

Yet, because technology is everyplace and has dramatically changed landscapes and societies, Hughes argues that applied scientists, scientists, and directors have frequently believed that they can utilize technology to determine the universe as they want. They have frequently supposed that technology is easy governable and this premise has to be exhaustively questioned. For case, Evgeny Morozov peculiarly challenges two constructs: “Internet-centrism” and “solutionism. '' Internet-centrism refers to the thought that our society is convinced that the Internet is one of the most stable and consistent forces. Solutionism is the political orientation that every societal issue can be solved thanks to technology and particularly thanks to the cyberspace. In fact, technology per se contains uncertainnesss and restrictions. Harmonizing to Alexis Madrigal 's reappraisal of Morozov 's theory, to disregard it will take to “unexpected effects that could finally do more harm than the jobs they seek to turn to. '' Benjamin R. Cohen and Gwen Ottinger besides discussed the multivalent effects of technology.

Therefore, acknowledgment of the restrictions of technology, and more loosely, scientific cognition, is needed – particularly in instances covering with environmental justness and wellness issues. Ottinger continues this logical thinking and argues that the on-going acknowledgment of the restrictions of scientific cognition goes manus in manus with scientists and engineers’ new comprehension of their function. Such an attack of technology and scientific discipline `` proficient professionals to gestate of their functions in the procedure otherwise. confederates in research and job work outing instead than merely suppliers of information and proficient solutions. ''

Undertaking Socrates

Undertaking Socrates determined that to reconstruct US fight, determination devising throughout the US had to readopt technology-based planning. Undertaking Socrates besides determined that states like China and India had continued put to deathing technology-based ( while the US took its roundabout way into economic-based ) planning, and as a consequence had well advanced the procedure and were utilizing it to construct themselves into world powers. To reconstruct US competitiveness the US decision-makers needed to follow a signifier of technology-based planning that was far more advanced than that used by China and India.

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